श्री जी. के. श्रीवास्तव, आईएएस अपर आयक् ु त (प्रशासन) G.K. Srivastava, IAS Additional Commissioner (Administration)
श्री यू एन खवारे
अपर आयुक्त (शैक्षिक) Mr. U N Khaware Additional Commissioner (Academics)
डॉ. शचीकाांत सांयुक्त आयुक्त (प्रशशिण) Dr. Shachi Kant Joint Commissioner (Training)
श्री ए. अरूमग ु म
सांयुक्त आयुक्त (ववत्त) Shri M Arumugam Joint Commissioner (Finance) डा वी. ववजयऱक्ष्मी संयुक्त आयुक्त (शिक्षा) Dr. V. Vijayalakshmi Joint Commissioner (Academics)
डॉ. ई. प्रभाकर सांयुक्त आयुक्त (काशमिक) Dr. E. Prabhakar Joint Commissioner (Personnel)
श्री. एस. स
Shri S Vijaya kumar Joint Commissioner (Admn)
FOREWORD The seven PGTs working as members
of faculty at KVS,ZIET Mysore- Mr. K
Arumugam(Physics) ,Mr. Kallu Sivalingam (Maths), Mr. M Reddenna (Geo.), Mr. Murugan (History), Mr. Hari Shankar (Hindi),Mr. Joseph Paul (Econ.) and Mr. U.P Binoy (English) prepared Study Materials for Class XII for the academic year 20152016 in their respective subjects. All these study materials focus on some select aspects , namely;
Gist of lessons/chapter Marking scheme (CBSE) Important questions Solved Question papers with value point. Tips for scoring well in the examination.
The above mentioned seven members of faculty at ZIET Mysore have put in a lot of efforts and prepared the materials in a period of two months. They deserve commendations for their single-minded pursuit in bringing out these materials. The teachers of these subjects namely, Physics, Mathematics, Geography, History, Hindi, Economics and English may use the materials in the month of January & February 2016 for Pre-Board Examination revision and practice purposes. It is hoped that these materials will help the students perform better in the forthcoming Board Examinations. The teachers are requested to go through the materials thoroughly, and feel free to send their opinions and suggestions for the improvement of these materials to [email protected] Dr. E.T ARASU Deputy Commissioner & Director KVS, ZIET Mysore
………About the material This study material/ revision material is prepared keeping in mind the necessity of the teachers, and the students who are appearing for AISSCE 2015 alike. When teachers can use it for better understanding of the lessons and various aspects of teaching learning inputs at one
level, the elaborate lesson wise question bank with solved and practice
may help teachers to customize and create
worksheets for revision or provide it as ready-made notes for the students. The students can make use of the material to understand each lesson
of the prescribed textbooks better and
understanding of their concept about all the types of questions in Section A: Reading and Section : B: Writing. The detailed notes on how to answer each type of question
with the marking scheme will help
children focus their preparation for facing the examination with ease. The solved questions / exercises will help them model and practice well, based on the given practice questions. The CBSE Sample question paper and the previous year’s Board examination papers given at the end of the study material may help them take mock examination and self-evaluate their performance with the given marking scheme and boost confidence to face the final board examination .
The teachers are requested to make use of the material and bring it to the notice of the students. Valuable suggestions are invited for further revision and improvement of the material. U. P Binoy PGT (Eng) KVS, ZIET Mysore
Sl. No. 1
Items Question paper format & specifications
Page No. 6-8
Section :A: Reading Comprehension
Section: B: Advanced Writing skills: Short compositions
Advanced Writing skills: Long compositions
Section : C: Literature Reader :Poems
Literature Reader: Prose
Practice Papers: Question paper for 2016
Solved CBSE Question Papers
SECTION-WISE ANALYSIS OF THE QUESTION PAPER SECTION - A : READING READING COMPREHENSION Comprehension means understanding or perception. The following points are to be carefully noted while attempting questions on comprehension. Go through the passage carefully and arrive at the general idea of the subject the passage presents. Read a second time to get a better understanding of the passage. Arrive at the meaning of difficult words by relating them to the preceding and following sentences. Underline relevant words and phrases of the passages which can help you deduce the answers. While selecting answer to the MCQs please see that the most appropriate answer referring to the facts given in the passage be selected. Read the questions carefully. Answer precisely using simple language. Answers should reveal your understanding of the passage. If you are asked to provide a suitable title or heading to the passage remember the title is hidden either in the beginning or ending of the passage. Title should relate to the main idea of the passage and should be brief.
Unseen passages for comprehension (Solved) A. 1. Read the passage given below and answer the questions that
1. First, a warning. The journey is tough, steep and peppered with hairpin bends. If you are not a hardened traveller, by the time you reach Tawang your head is likely to be spinning. Add to it the breeze which pierces through all your protective clothing and you could well be wondering what prompted you to make this arduous trip to such Himalayan heights. 2. To get acclimatized to high altitude, the recipe is simple and strict – take it easy on the first day, lest you find yourself out of breath and panting. Tuck yourself in a warm bed and sip some thupka (Tibetan noodle soup) and begin your adventures the following day. 3. In fact when you get up the next morning, you will scarcely believe what you see. The picture postcard beauty of the hill station in Arunachal Pradesh will simply take your breath away. The scenery is pristine and the Himalayan ranges are lush with pine, oak and rhododendron forests. There is also a rich growth of bamboo, which is the favorite food of the red panda found in this part of the Northeast. 4. Located about 10,000 feet above sea level, the Tawang monastery is the second oldest monastery in Asia, which explains the rush of tourists to this remote settlement. The magnificent monastery overlooks the valley and surrounded by mountains that seem to be towering around it like guards. The monastery’s enormous yellow roof and white walls stand out like a beacon. The place is completely isolated from the world. 5. One of the biggest attractions of the monastery is the three storey dukhang (assembly hall) that has a magnificent eight-meter-high gilded image of Buddha. 6. The ancient library, leading onto the parkhang (main courtyard) has an excellent collection of old scriptures, images and thankas (traditional paintings and monastery – or gompa in local language – is over 350 years old and is an important centre of pilgrimage for Buddhists. 7. The sixth Dalai Lama was born here. Also known as the Galden Namgyan Lhatse, the monastery is a repository of Tibetan Buddhist culture. 8. Tawang does not have an airport or railway station of its own. It is connected with other town in Arunachal Pradesh and Assam by road. Reaching Tawang from Kolkata is braving a long but rewarding journey. The drive through the picturesque mountain country is spectacular and can leave you breathless as you wind around steep hill-roads and maneuver sharp hairpin bends. In parts, the road can be rather treacherous. This is definitely not a drive for the faint-hearted. 10
9. The journey to Tawang starts from Guwahati on a bus or a taxi to Bomdila. Past the Dirang valley with its old dzong (fort), the road climbs sharply to Sela Pass at 13,940 feet. This barren, desolate landscape is softened by a serene lake that lies below Sela Pass.
10. Twang has one main street and a warren on alleys to the houses that climb up the hillside towards the towering monastery. It also has one quaint little bazaar which sells products ranging from talismans and prayer wheels to garish sunglasses and transistors. The snack stalls are a plenty offering solja, the yak butter tea, thupka and hot memos, the delicious steamed meat dumpling with chil ly sauce. (I)On the basis of the understanding of the passage , answer the following questions by choosing the most appropriate option (1 x 4=4 marks) 1. To acclimatize to high altitude, one should.. a). wear very warm clothes b). take precautionary medicine c). have strong will-power d). be cool about it in the beginning 2. Which of the following is not correct about Tawang? a). a remote settlement b). unconnected by air c). offers wonderful spectacles of beauty d). biggest monastery in the world 3. The biggest attraction in the monastery is.. a). the gilded image of Budha b). the enormous yellow roof and white walls c). the ancient library d). the panoramic view around 4. Tawang can be reached by… a). Air b). Train c). Road from Sikkim d). Road passing through Assam
(II) Answer the following questions as briefly as possible. (6 marks) 5. Why is the journey up Twang so arduous? (1) 6. Why do people like to visit Tawang? (1) 7. How can one reach Tawang? (1) 8. How is Tawang important for Budhist?(1) 9. How does a drive to Tawang attract visitors?(1) 10. What are the food delicacies that visitors can enjoy atop Tawang?(1) (III) Pick out words or phrases which convey the same meaning as the following.(2) 1. Extremely attractive ( Para 4) 2.Holy place (Para 6) Answers
1. d). be cool about it in the beginning 2. d). biggest monastery in the world 3.a). the gilded image of Budha
4. d). Road passing through Assam
5.The breeze pierces the protective clothes. The traveler’s head starts spinning. 6. Greatly attracted by the panoramic beauty. The scenery is wonderful. 7. You can reach Tawang only by road either from Kolkota or passing through Arunachal Pradesh or Assam
8.Tawang is the birth place of the sixth Dalai Lama. It is the place of Budhist pilgrimage and the monastery is a repository of Tibetan Budhist culture. 9.Picteresque and spectacular mountains with breathless views.
10.solja, the yak butter tea, thupka and hot memos, the delicious streamed meat dumpling with chilly sauce
(III) 1. Magnificent
Unseen Passages for Practice 1. Read the following passage carefully and answer the questions that follow. Light Pollution 1. Every urbanite knows the bright lights of the city make it impossible to see the stars in a night sky. What most of us do not know is that those lights also may be making us sick. The cause is light pollution – the unearthly glow of billions of street lamps, security and porch lights, searchlights, office lights and signs – as people everywhere try to dispel the darkness of the night. 2. For the first time, light is being investigated seriously as a pollutant and a health hazard – a possible cause increased incidence of breast cancer, depression and other ailments. 3. In the most heavily urbanized regions, it no longer ever really gets dark. Satellite images reveal that in large areas of eastern North America, Western Europe, Japan and Korea, night has become a constant twilight. In a natural night sky, someone looking at the heavens should be able to see nearly 3500 stars and planets and the glow from the Milky Way, our galaxy. But in some brightly lit cities, the number of visible stars has dwindled to about a few dozen. 4. And for many wildlife species, light pollution seems to be as grave as environmental threat as bulldozed habitats and toxic-chemical dumping. 5. Lighting from office towers confuse migratory birds which fly into buildings lit up at night. Millions of birds in North America die from these crashes. Researchers have noticed since the 1980s that artificial lights along ocean beaches confuse millions of baby turtles. Observers say that the turtles instinctively crawl to the brightest thing on the horizon – normally the reflection of the moon on the sea. But where beaches are illuminated, baby turtles often crawl to the lit roads, where they are flattened by cars, or wander in circles on the beach. Once day breaks, they bake to death in the sun. 6. Sea turtles and birds are clearly in peril because of light at night, but scientists have begun to study whether human may share something of the same fate. Richard Steven, a US Epidemiologist, has developed the idea that night light can disrupt critical hormonal levels that affect human health.
7. Stevens came to this conclusion while trying to solve the puzzle of why breast cancer risk is five times higher in industrialized societies than in non-industrialized countries. 8. Stevens turned to literature on circadian rhythms- the 24-hour biological clock that guides daily body functions – and on melatonin, a hormone most living creatures produce only in darkness. In a study published in 2001, Stevens says that there is ‘mounting evidence to suggest that disruption of the melatonin rhythm may lead to chronic fatigue, depression, reproduction anomalies and perhaps even cancer’. Melatonin is produced in the brain’s pineal gland only when the eyes signal it is dark. Those working under lighting at night could be reducing the amount of melatonin they produce. 9. Travis Longcore, Science Director at the Urban Wild lands Group (a Los Angeles conservation group), says that light pollution should be receiving the same attention as other environmental ills. Canada has set up a conservation reserve north of Toronto, the first in the world to preserve a pristine night sky. Conservationists are hoping to expand the area of preserved night sky beyond the park’s boundaries by encouraging local municipalities to curtail the use of poorly designed night lighting. 10. In the United States, the International Dark-Sky Association (IDA) has been campaigning for bylaws requiring ‘night-friendly’ lights, with the bulbs recesses into the fixture so that the light does not glare out horizontally or upwards. Lamps that direct a light beam at the ground use less electricity and do not uselessly light the sky. While the health and environmental impacts of night pollution are starting to capture attention, Dave Crawford, the executive director of IDA, has other concerns too. He too worries that light may be making people sick and harming wildlife, but he says the fading of the heavens could also cause a fading of the human imagination – in many ways a greater long-term threat. 11. Writers and artists have been drawn inspiration from the night sky. Says Crawford, “It’s the glamour and wonder of the universe we live in. We’ve got to preserve that.” (I)
On the basis of your understanding of the passage, answer the following questions by choosing the most appropriate option.
1. International Dark Sky Association has been campaigning for … a). Switching off all the lights at night b). Reduce usage of electricity c). Creating bylaws for night-friendly lights d). Banning artificial lights 2. Which of the following creatures is not affected by light ? a). Birds b). Animals c). Turtles d). Fish 14
Answer the following questions (6 marks)
3.How is light a pollutant?
4.What startling revelation does this passage provide about death of turtles?
5.How does lighting affect our daily body functions?
6.What measures have been taken in Canada to reduce light pollution?
7.What are the suggestions given by the IDA to counter light pollution?
8.How do writers place solidarity against light pollution? (1)
(III)Pick out words or phrases which convey the same meaning as the following: (2 marks) (i) Threat or danger (Para 6) (ii) To limit ( para 8) NOTE MAKING Tips to prepare Notes and Summary:
Prepare notes using phrases only and never use complete sentences.
The topic sentence of each paragraph is the main point and the ideas affiliated to it are the sub-points – one or more depending on the concepts in the paragraph. Sub points should be limited to five.
Each sub-point may or may not have supplementary ideas which become subsub points.
Proper indentation is essential.
Provide an appropriate title for the notes and the summary.
Include a minimum of 4 to 6 distinctly different, recognizable short forms of the Longer Words (abbreviations) in the notes.
Underline all short forms. Provide the key for the short forms at the end of the notes titled ‘Key to Abbreviations’.
Cover all the important points in the passage while preparing the notes.
Identify and club similar ideas scattered in different paragraphs/areas of the Passage before subtitling paragraph wise to make note short and precise. Do proper indentation . You may use symbols & figures also for abbreviation. 15
Include all the important points in the notes meaningfully to prepare the summary in about 80
Write the summary in complete sentences in a paragraph with a suitable title. Split up of Marks Note making (5) Title: 1 Content: Key to Abbreviations:
Summary (3) Content: 2 Expression: 1
Passage for Note Making (Solved) 2. Read the passage given below carefully and answer the questions that follow: (8) 1. The small village of Somnathpur contains an extraordinary temple, built around 1268 A.D. by the Hoyasalas of Karnataka – one of the most prolific temple-builders. Belur and Helebid are among their better-known works. While these suffered during the invasions of the 14th century, the Somnathpur temple stands more or less intact in near-original condition. 2. This small temple captivates with the beauty and vitality of its detailed sculpture, covering almost every inch of the walls, pillars and even ceilings. It has three shikharas and stands on a star-shaped, raised platform with 24 edges. The outer walls have a profusion of detailed carvings: the entire surface run over by carved plaques of stone. There were vertical panels covered by exquisite figures of gods and goddesses with many incarnations being depicted. There were nymphs too, some carrying an ear of maize a symbol of plenty and prosperity. The elaborate ornamentation, very characteristic of Hoyasala sculptures, was a remarkable feature. On closer look- and it is worth it – the series of friezes on the outer walls revealed intricately carved caparisoned (covered decorative cloth) elephants, charging horsemen, stylized flowers, warriors, musicians, crocodiles, and swans. 3. The temple was actually commissioned by Soma Dandanayaka or Somnath (he named the village after himself), the minister of the Hoyasala king, Narasimha, the Third. The temple was built to house three versions of Krishna. 4. The inner center of the temple was the kalyana mandapa. Leading from here were three corridors each ending in a shrine, one for each kind of Krishna – Venugopala, Janardana and Prasanna Keshava, though only two remain in their original form. In the darkness of the sanctum sanctorum, I tried to discern the different images. The temple’s sculptural perfection is amazing and it includes the doors of the temple and the three elegantly carved towers. 2.1. On the basis of your reading of the above passage make notes on it using headings and sub-headings. Use recognizable abbreviations, wherever necessary. Give the passage a suitable title. 5 16
Temple of Somnathpur 1. Temple: the beauty and vitality 1.1. Detailed sculpture – covering walls, pillars, ceilings 1.1. a. Series of friezes on outer walls 1.1. b. intricately carved elephants
1.1. c. charging horsemen 1.1. d. stylized flowers 1.1. e. warriors, musicians, crocodile and swans 1.2. three shikharas – stands *shaped, raised platform – 24 edges 1.3. the outer walls – detailed carvings 1.4. the entire surface – carved plaques of stone 1.5. vertical panels covered by exq. fig.
2. Representation of Hinduism 2.1. incarnations 2.2. many deities
2.2. Write a summary of the note prepared in not more than 80 words. (3 marks) Temple of Somnathpur The temple of Somnathpur is extraordinary due to the sculptures on the walls, pillars, and even the ceiling which is covered by exquisite figures of gods and goddesses. It is a representation of Hinduism with its many incarnations and deities. The temple commissioned by Somnath has a ‘kalyana mandapa’ with three corridors ending in a shrine.
Passages for Practice (i)Read the passage given below carefully and answer the questions that follow: (8) 1.The practice of soil conservation involves methods to reduce soil erosion, prevent depletion of soil nutrients, and restore nutrients, already lost by erosion and excessive crop harvesting. Most methods used to control soil erosion involve, keeping the soil covered with vegetation. 2. In conventional farming, the land is ploughed several times and smoothed to make a planting surface – a practice that makes it vulnerable to soil erosion. To reduce erosion, an increasing number of farmers in many countries are using conservation – tillage farming, also known as minimum – tillage, or no- till farming, depending on the degree to which the soil is disturbed. Farmers using these methods disturb the soil as little as possible in planting crops. 3. For the minimum-tillage method, special tillers break up and loosen the subsurface soil without turning over the topsoil. In no-till farming special planting machines inject seeds, fertilizers and weed-killers into slits made in the unploughed soil. 4.In addition to reducing soil erosion, conversation – tillage and no-till farming reduce Fuel and tillage costs and water loss from soil. They can also increase the number of crops that can be grown during a season. 5.Soil erosion can also be reduced by 30-50 percent on gently sloping land by means of contour farming – ploughing and planting crops in rows across, rather than up and down, the sloped contours of the land. Each row planted horizontally along the slope of the land acts as a small dam to help hold and slow the runoff of water.
6. Terracing can be used on steeper slopes. Each terrace retains some of the water running down the vegetated slope. Terracing provides water for crops at all levels and decreases soil erosion by reducing the amount and speed of water runoff. In areas of high rainfall, diversions ditches must be built behind each terrace to permit adequate drainage.
7. In strip cropping, a series of rows of one crop, such as corn or soybeans, is planted in a wide strip. Then the next strip is planted with a soil-conserving cover crop, such as grass or grass-legume mixture, which completely covers the soil and thus reduces erosion. 18
These alternating rows of cover trap soil that erodes from the other rows, catch and reduce water runoff, and help prevent the spread of plant diseases and pests from one strip to another. 8. Windbreaks can reduce erosion caused by exposure of cultivated lands to high winds or shelter beats. These are long rows of trees planted to partially block the wind. Windbreaks also provide habitats for birds, pest eating and pollinating insects and other animals.
3. a). On the basis of your reading of the above passage make notes on it using headings and sub-headings. Use recognizable abbreviations, wherever necessary. Give the passage a suitable title.
3.b).. Write a summary of the notes prepared in not more than 80 words.
Read the passage given below carefully and answer the questions that follow: (8 marks) 1.
The tests of life are its plus factors. Overcoming illness and suffering is a plus factor for it moulds character. Steel is iron plus fire, soil is rock plus heat. So let’s include the plus factor in our lives.
2. Sometimes the plus factor is more readily seen by the simple-hearted. Myers tells the story of a mother who brought into her home - as a companion to her own son - a little boy who happened to have a hunchback. She had warned her son to be careful not to refer to his disability, and to go right on playing with him as if he were like any other boy. 3. The boys were playing and after a few minutes she overheard her son say to his companion:
“Do you know what you have got on your back?” The little boy was embarrassed, but before he could reply, his playmate continued: “It is the box in which your wings are and someday God is going to cut it open and then you will fly away and be an angel”. 4. Often it takes a third eye or a change in focus, to see the plus factor. Walking along the corridors of a hospital recently where patients were struggling with fear of pain and tests, I was perturbed. What gave me fresh perspective were the sayings put up everywhere, intended to uplift. One saying made me conscious of the beauty of the universe in the midst of pain, suffering and struggle. The other saying assured me that God was with me when I was in deep water and that no troubles would overwhelm me. 5. The import of those sayings also made me aware of the nether springs that flow into people’s lives when they touch rock bottom or lonely or even deserted. The nether springs make recovery possible, and they bring peace and patience in the midst of pain and distress.
6. The forces of death and destruction are not so much physical as they are psychic and psychological. When malice, hate and hard-heartedness prevail, they get channeled as forces of destruction. Where openness, peace and good-heartedness prevail, the forces of life gush forth to regenerate hope and joy. The life force is triumphant when love overcomes fear. Both fear and love are deep mysteries, but the effect of love is to build whereas fear tends to destroy. Love is often the plus factor that helps build character. It helps us to accept and to overcome suffering. It creates lasting bonds and its reach is infinite. 7. It is true that there is no shortage of destructive elements - forces and people who seek to destroy others and in the process, destroy themselves - but at the same time there are signs of love and life everywhere that are constantly enabling us to overcome setbacks. So let’s not look only at gloom and doom - let’s seek out positivity and happiness. For it is when you seek that you will find what is waiting to be discovered. 2.1. On the basis of your reading of the above passage make notes on it using headings and subheadings. Use recognizable abbreviations, wherever necessary. Give the passage a suitable title. 5 2.2. Write a summary of the notes prepared in not more than 80 words (3 marks)
SECTION-B : ADVANCED WRITING SKILLS (35 Marks)
QUESTION NO -3
THIS QUESTION INCLUDES THE FOLLOWING SHORT COMPOSITIONS:50 WORDS : 4 MARKS
1. Notice 2. Advertisements – classified and commercial 3. Posters 4. Invitations and replies
1. Notice (4 Marks / 50 Words) A Notice is a written or a printed information or news announcement. Notices are either displayed at prominent places or published in newspapers/magazines. It is meant only for a select group. Since a notice contains a formal announcement or information, its tone and style are formal and factual. Its language should be simple and formal. A notice is always brief and to the point. Remember, Circulars are also written like notices, but unlike notices, they carry more than one message, and they are circulated through a messenger.
POINTS TO BE FOLLOWED WHILE WRITING NOTICES:
Adhere to the specified word limit of 50 words. Write the word NOTICE at the top. Name and place of the school, organization or office issuing the notice should be mentioned. Give an appropriate heading. Write the date of issuing the notice. Clearly mention the target group (for whom the notice is to be displayed). Purpose of the notice. Mention all the relevant details (date, venue, time). Mention whom to contact for extra information. Signature, name and designation of the person issuing the notice. Put the notice in a box. Format of a notice A NOTICE is always written in a box.
NAME OF THE INSTITUTION/ORGANIZATION/OFFICE , PLACE NOTICE SUITABLE HEADING..? 29 JUNE 2011 Content : Target group-for whom the notice is. Date, time, venue and all important details and any extra information needed. (Body of the Notice 50 words ) Answer the questions -For whom, what , when where when how , by whom + additional information. Signature (NAME) Designation Marking Scheme :Format: Title (Notice/Heading/Place/Date/Signature with name and Designation) (1 mark) Content: For Whom(Target group)? What? When? Where?, Agenda etc. (All within 50 words) (2 marks) Expression: Coherence, spellings and grammatical accuracy. (1 marks) 21
Imagine you are a member of RED CROSS Blood Bank Society, Bangalore. You have been asked by the President of the society, Mr. Manish Nair to organize a Blood Donation Camp. Write a notice in 50 words urging the people to come in large numbers for this noble cause.
RED CROSS BLOOD BANK SOCIETY,BANGALORE NOTICE DONATE BLOOD AND SAVE LIVES! 29th June 2011 A State Level function to observe voluntary Blood Donation Day is being organized on 5th and 6th July 2011 at Red Cross Blood Bank Society Office, M.G. Road, Bangalore. It starts at 8 a.m. and will continue till 5 p.m. both days. All are requested to volunteer and donate blood and save the lives of the needy people. Manish (MANISH NAIR) PRESIDENT,RED CROSS BLOOD BANK SOCIETY
Solved Example-2 Your school (Amar Vidyalaya), Bangalore is organizing a cultural evening to collect funds for the slum children. The Vice-Chancellor, Bangalore University has consented to be the Chief Guest on the occasion. Draft a notice in this connection to be displayed on your school notice board. Imagine you are the Rakesh Tilak ,Cultural Secretary of your school. (Word limit: 50 words)
AMAR VIDYALAYA , BANGALORE NOTICE CULTURAL EVENING FOR A CHARITY 1st JULY 2011 The school is organizing a Cultural Evening to collect funds for the slum children in the neighborhood, on 10th July 2011 from 6 p.m. to 9 p.m. in the school playground. Dr. S.M.Rao Vice-Chancellor, Bangalore University has consented to be the Chief Guest on the occasion. All are invited and requested to give wide publicity to the event. For more details contact the undersigned. Rakesh Tilak (RAKESH TILAK) Cultural Secretary
NOTICES FOR PRACTICE (Word Limit 50) 1. As the Secretary of the Science Club of your school, write a notice in about 50 words informing students of an inter class science quiz. 2. You are Abhinav/Alka. You have planned a 2-week course to be arranged to help the children of your housing society called “Renaissance Housing Society” at Mysore acquire Spoken English Skills. As the Secretary of the Society , prepare a notice for the Society’s notice board stating the objective of the course ,giving necessary details of the course and requesting the children of the society to join the course. 3. Your school, Adarsh Vidyalaya, Solan, is organising a lecture by the famous writer Vikram Seth on the occasion of ‘Literacy Week’ being celebrated in your school. Write a notice informing students about the lecture. Invent necessary details. 4. Draft a suitable notice for your School Notice Board giving details of the inauguration of the Literary Association activities in your school. You are Deepak/Deepaika, Secretary, School Literary Association. Your School is called Modern Senior Secondary School, Belgaum. 5. Your school has just completed 25 years of its meritorious service to society. The Students’ Council of your school has decided to celebrate its Silver Jubilee. As President of the Council, write a notice in not more than 50 words, for the students of your school, informing them about the Council’s decision and seeking their co-operation for the success of the proposed Silver Jubilee Celebrations.
6. You are Sanjay / Sangeeta. As President of the Excursion Club you have organized an excursion to Katmandu (Nepal) during the summer vacation for the senior students of your school. Write a notice in about 50 words informing the students about the proposed excursion. QUESTION -3: 2 Advertisements: (4 Marks /50 Words) An ADVERTISEMENT is a kind of public notice asking for or offering services or buying and selling property, goods etc., or providing information about missing persons, pets etc. There are two kinds of advertisements: 1. Classified 2. Commercial CLASSIFIED ADVERTISEMENTS You will come across classified advertisements in the columns of newspapers and magazines. The important features of a Classified Advertisements are— * * * *
No blocks, no design and language to be factual. Simple and formal and to the point Comprehensive; yet must leave out no important matter. Never be too lengthy (confine to the word limit)
Marking Scheme : Format Suitable Heading/Classification) 1 Mark Content relevance 2 Marks Expression(Grammatical, Accuracy, Spellings Suitable Style & Selection of words 1 Mark Important Points to be followed: CLASSIFIED ADVERTISEMENTS * Clearly state the category at the top-e.g.-For Sale, To Let etc. * Give all necessary details in points using commas. * Give contact address, name, and telephone number. * Put the matter in a box. Kinds of Classified Advertisements I. Situation Vacant/Wanted 2. Lost and found 3. Sale and purchase 4. Accommodation wanted 5. Educational 6. Placement services 7. Matrimonial 8. To-Let 9. Tuitions 10. Packers and Movers 11. Kennel 12 Travels and Tours 13. Public Appeal
FURTHER SAMPLES OF CLASSIFIED ADVERTISEMENTS SAMPLE—1 1. You are Personal Assistant to G.M., ABC Metal Tools Company, Mumbai. Your General Manager has asked you to draft a Classified advertisement for a local daily for the post of two engineers. Draft the advertisement in not more than 50 words.
SITUATION VACANT Required two well qualified Mechanical Engineers with a minimum experience of five years. Remuneration commensurate with the performance and output of the candidate. Send the Curriculum Vitae within seven days to the Personnel Manager, ABC Metal Tools Company, 7, Vashist Complex , Malad East, Mumbai, along with scanned copies of necessary certificates within a [email protected][email protected] Ph-26090003,26093330
SAMPLE—2 2.You are Anurag/Aparna of 110,Swasthya Vihar , New Delhi .You wish to let out a portion of your newly built house. Draft an advertisement in not more than 50 words for publication in the “To- Let” column of The Hindustan Times, giving all necessary details .
TO LET Available 1500 sq.ft. ground floor of a newly built house in Swasthya Vihar with two spacious bedrooms, attached bathrooms, drawing-cum-dining room, kitchen and interiors. Rent expected-Rs. 7000/-. Interested persons may please contact— Anurag Swasthya Vihar , New Delhi.Phone-27439543/[email protected]
NECESSARY INFORMATION SITUATION VACANT Specify the post and number of vacancies Qualities of the person required Name of the company (optional) Age and sex of the candidate Pay scale and perks Mode of applying Contact address and phone number
LOST AND FOUND Begin with LOST/FOUND Description of the article When and where the article Lost/Found Reward for finding it Contact address and phone number
KENNEL Type of accommodation, No. of rooms/floor Breed of dog Whether it’s independent or an apartment Age Rent expected Colour Type of tenant required-Bank employee/small Training family Price expected Whom and when to contact Contact address and phone number Contact address/phone number VEHICLES FOR SALE PACKERS AND MOVERS Make : Maruti/Hyundai Santro etc. Specify the services Model/colour/accessories/year of Give reason why you should be given a manufacture/mileage chance Condition Area of work Ownership details Whom to contact Price expected Contact address and phone number Contact address/phone number PROPERTY FOR SALE Travels and Tours Plot for sale Name of the agency Location-where it is Destinations and durations Area : in sq. meters/yards Details of the package Name of the development authority Discounts if any Price expected Contact address and phone number Contact address/phone number
TUTIONS Classes and subjects Special qualities of the tutor Qualifications and experience of the tutor Previous results of his/her students Contact address/phone number
HOUSE/FLAT FOR SALE Type of accommodation, No. of rooms/floor Whether it’s independent or an apartment Price expected/negotiable Location-where it is Area : in sq. meters/yards Name of the development authority Whom and when to contact Contact address/phone number
COMMERCIAL ADVERTISEMENT OR DISPLAY ADVERTISEMENTS
They are designed for commercial purposes.
Require more space, hence are costly. Must be attractive as they with visuals, catchy phrases and slogans.
Must be attractive-with a catchy caption, heading or sub-headings.
Figurative language. (alliteration and metaphors especially)
Proportionate spacing of fonts with different sizes.
Usually attractive with catchy slogans, punch lines, witty Expressions, pictures or sketches.
Special offers or discount, if any.
Details of the product or event given in a clear, precise way.
Give name, contact number and address of the advertiser.
Present the matter in a box.
Marking Scheme: Content: 2 Expression:2
Commercial Advertisements- Sample 1 Sample- 1
Draft attractive Commercial Advertisement inviting customers to a leading resort called ‘FORT RESORT AND FARMS’ to organize weddings, parties and other events.
A HEAVENLY PLACEFOR WEDDINGS, PARTIES AND EVENTS WELCOME TO FORT RESORT AND FARMS!!!
LARGEST VENUE AROUND CHANDIGARH !!!! SPREAD OVER 12 ACRES BREATHTAKING BACKDROP! MORE THAN 500 TREES COMPLEMENTED BY WATERFALLS AND FOUNTAINS!! FORT RESORT…. AN IDEAL LOCATION TO CELEBRATE MARRIAGES—PARTIES—ANNIVERSERIES AND VARIOUS OTHER EVENTS ISSUED BY : FORT RESORT HOTELS SHAHEED BHAGATH SINGH MA CHANDIGARH –56 email@example.com CALL US AT – 060-5467834/568
2.Draft an advertisement on behalf of Department of West Bengal highlighting the beauty of Darjeeling, Digha Sunder bans and Dooars known for their green hills, sea shore, teagardens and Royal Bengal Tigers.
WEST BENGAL—YOUR DREAM HOLIDAY PACKAGE Darjeeling the “Queen of the Hills” Sunderbans-with Royal Bengal Tiger
Digha , the resort by the sea Dooars with its rolling verdant tea-
gardens West Bengal packs in the richest natural variety within its small periphery. Ultimate destination with Ultra Modern facilities!!!!! Enjoy Nature in its Plenty!!!!!!
GOVERNMENT OF WEST BENGAL
For details contact: Department of Tourism, Government of West Bengal. @. Brabourne Road 4th floor,Kolkata-700001 , www.wbddeptoftourism.org Phone-091-033-2225/4723/24/25
Note- You can use Match Stick figures and rough sketches for illustration. Do not spend much time on illustration. Written language and expressions will only help you score better.
Exercises for Practice (Advertisement) 1 M/s Blue Towers, a readymade jeans company is launching their 2012 range of jeans for men and women. Draft an attractive l advertisement. 2 M/s Leather Shoes has brought a new range of formal shoes for men. Draft a suitable advertisement. 3 M/s Metro Shirts have introduced their new summer range of men’s shirts and T-shirts. Prepare an attractive advertisement for the range. 4M/s Pen India has brought out a new gel pen in many colors. Prepare an eye catching advertisement for the pen, giving all relevant details. 5 Draft an advertisement announcing the launch of special health drink by Health Care Private Ltd., highlighting its nutritive value. 6 You are working for an advertising agency. Draft an attractive advertisement for the company called Modern Machines which is launching washing machines. 7 You have recently started a Yoga Centre for school children. Draft an advertisement to be published in a local daily about it, giving all relevant details. 8 You are Harish of No. 10, Kailash Ganj and Lucknow. Draft an advertisement to be published in the daily, ‘The Hindustan times’, under classified Columns to dispose off your car as you are going abroad. 9 You have recently started a Centre for Personality Development for school children. Draft an advertisement to be published in a local daily about it , giving all relevant details. 10 You are Manisha. You have started hobby classes for children of 6 to 12 years. Prepare a suitable advertisement giving all the required details.. (50 words) 11 You are Mohan of Raja ki Mandi, Agra. You want a dance teacher for your younger sister. Write an advertisement to be published in the classified columns of a local daily. 12 You propose to sell your flat as you are going abroad. Draft an advertisement to be published in the classified columns of ‘The Times of India’, New Delhi. Invent necessary details. 13 You have a commercial flat suitable for an office/bank. You wish to rent it out. Draft an advertisement to be published in ‘The Times of India’, New Delhi under the classified columns. 14 You are Ashoka/Ashita of Sitapur, Lucknow. You have got a foreign assignment and would be going abroad soon. You have a color television set and a refrigerator to sell. Draft a suitable advertisement to be displayed on the housing society notice board. (50 words) 15 You have recently constructed a house with all the facilities in a posh area. You have decided to sell it out. Draft a suitable advertisement for the column of a local daily. Invent all the necessary details, including a contact address.
POSTERS: (4 MARKS -50 WORDS) A POSTER is a large notice announcing or advertising something. It generally creates social awareness about any problem or needs .It also conveys a social message in an eye catching way. It must capture the reader’s attention and motivate him/her to read on. Main Features of a Poster: Layout: A creative title in the form of a slogan or rhyming words for example :- Speed thrills but kills, Pollution needs a Solution, Green is Clean etc.
You can use Match Stick figures for illustration.
Proper spacing and proportionate headings and illustrations.
Date, time and venue must be mentioned in case of an event.
A poster displays a message, or an appeal to create awareness.
The content should be organized in an appropriate style.
Use appropriate expressions and correct language.
Theme should be clear.
It should be creative and related to the content
Spend much time on illustration. Written language & expressions are given more credits.
Do not forget to place the Name of the issuing authority / the organizer.
Content : 2 Marks & Expression:2 Marks
SAMPLE POSTER—1 On behalf of Department of Environment, Bangalore Administration, draft a Poster on the detrimental consequences of burning leaves and garbage upon the environment and also issuing a warning of the punishment to those indulging in the same.
DON’T BURN DRY LEAVES OR GARBAGE It emits toxic and harmful fumes! It increases suspended particle matter (SPM) in the air and pollutes it! Produces carbon-di-oxide causing greenhouse effect! Disturbs the natural climate of the planet. Leads to cough, eye irritation and respiratory disorders! Municipal Corporation Bangalore has banned the burning of leaves and garbage. Any Violation depending on the scale is punishable with imprisonment for a term extending to five years and fine up to one lakh rupees
Issued in Public Interest: Department of Environment : Bangalore administration:
SAMPLE POSTER-2 The Citizens’ Awareness Forum of your city has decided to launch a campaign against the use of drugs. You are asked to get posters prepared. Design an attractive and effective poster against the use of drugs.
Don’t be late SAY IT JUST TODAY
DRUG ADDICTION Brings ENDLESS MISERY AND RUIN
Be firm….., ACT NOW….IT IS NOW OR NEVER DRUGS MAY THRILL! BUT THEY SURELY KILL! EASY TO GET IN! DIFFICULT TO GET OUT! Issued by
CITIZENS AWARENESS FORUM , PUNE
SAVE LIFE !!!!!
POSTERS FOR PRACTICE
1. Recent rains have caused havoc in some parts of our country. You are Surya, a member of the social service organization, SEVA MANDIR, Bangalore. Draft a poster requesting people to help the rain and flood affected families physically and economically. 2.A ‘Check Vehicular Pollution’ campaign is being organized in your city. Draft a poster to be used in the campaign. 3. Water is precious and each one of us must stop wastage. Prepare a poster in not more than 50 words, for creating that awareness. 4. Draft a poster announcing a ‘Book Week’ being organized by the Cultural Society, Ahmedabad. 5. Your school is planning a campaign in support of eye donation to mobilize the students and society. Design a poster to be displayed in different areas of the locality surrounding your school highlighting the need for eye donation and eye banks. 6. Prepare a poster to bring about awareness against the hazards of reckless use of plastics. 7. Observing another anniversary of the Hiroshima & Nagazaki Day, draft a poster against different countries” race to accumulate nuclear weapons highlighting the disastrous end of such competition. 8. Draft a poster the ill effects of video games on young children. 9. Recently almost 60 people including several children were burned to death when a crackers factory went into flames. Draft a poster against engaging children in such harmul work. Also highlight the laws against child labour.
4. Invitations and Replies: (50 Words 4 Marks) No man is an island. Man is a social animal. We need to be with people. This is the reason why solitary confinement is the worst form of punishment one can experience. So, we celebrate many occasions together. To invite someone for an occasion we use the written form-INVITATION. Invitations are generally printed cards through which we invite our guests on some auspicious occasion like wedding, birthday, wedding anniversary, house warming, inauguration of a shop/factory etc.
Invitations are of two types: (a) Formal (b) Informal. They can be printed on cards or can be drafted in the form of letters. MAIN CHARACTERISTICS
An invitation is complete information. It answers the questions: who, whom, when, where, what time and for what. The important components of an invitation therefore are:o The occasion o Name(s) of the invitee(s) o Name(s) of the host(s) o Date, time and venue o Name(s) of the chief guest or special invitees , in case of an official invitation FORMAT OF FORMAL INVITATIONS In case of formal invitations, each of the following is written in a separate line with fonts of varying sizes. Names of the hosts Names of the invitee (in case of a formal letter of invitation)) Formal phrase of invitation , for example :Request the pleasure of your benign presence/company. Seek your auspicious presence. Solicit your gracious presence on the auspicious occasion The date, time and venue of the event. The occasion/reason of the invitation. A-CHARACTERISTICS OF FORMAL INVITATIONS 1.Meant for a lot of invitees
These are written in the third person. In case a VIP is invited as the chief guest the name of the VIP must appear prominently. Name of the invitee is not to be included. The addressee’s address is to be written only on the envelope. Simple Present Tense is to be used. The date of writing is not to be given. There is no signature of the host.
The abbreviation RSVP (French : repondez s’il vous plait ) i.e. ‘please reply’ is written below on the left with name(s)/ address &phone number of the host(s) Put the invitation in a box & follow word limit.
1.Meant for an individual (a formal letter of invitation) *
Include the name of the invitee These are to be written on run-on lines. The sentence is not broken into different words/phrases. Other details are similar to the mass-scale invitations Marking Scheme: Content:2 Expression:2 EXAMPLES OF FORMAL INVITATIONS
1.Your father, Mr. Raj Kumar Gupta , residing at K-18 ,13th Cross Malleswaram, Bangalore wants to celebrate the success of your brother Rohith’s clearing the IIT-JEE Entrance Examination and securing admission in IIT Powai ,Mumbai. He wants you to draft a formal invitation for him on his behalf. Draft the invitation for him in not more than 50 words.
Mrs. And Mr. Raj Kumar Gupta Seek your auspicious presence at the Grand Celebration Party of their son Rohit’s successfully passing the IIT-JEE ENTRANCE EXAMINATION
at 8.00 p.m. on 1st October, 2012 at UTSAV BANQUET HALL 84-Dr. Raj Kumar, Road, Rajaji Nagar Bangalore-55 Compliments from Friends and Relatives RSVP th k-18, 13 Cross ,Malleswaram 2712001/9732966964
2. Your school, Bal Peeth Residential School, Bellary is planning to organize the Annual Sports Day in the school premises. Draft an invitation in not more than 50 words giving all the essential details.
The Principal ,Staff and Students of Bal Peeth Residential School , Bellary request the pleasure of your company on ANNUAL SPORTS DAY at 5.00 p.m. on Monday , the 4th Nov.,2012 at the school ground Air Marshal S.K.Sinha , AVSM, has kindly consented to be the chief guest & Smt. Radha Sinha has graciously consented to give away the prizes.
RSVP 2354679 ** You are requested to be seated by 4.30 p.m.
Kamala Nehru School Cantonment Bangalore
25th Nov 2012
Mr. K.J. Singh DCP Police Lines Bangalore Sub: Invitation: School Annual Day Function Sir It gives us immense pleasure to inform you that we are celebrating our school’s 25th Annual Day at 5.30 p.m. on Dec. 10, 2012. in the School Auditorium. We shall consider it a great honour if you could grace the occasion as the Chief Guest, preside over the function and give away the prizes.
Yours faithfully Sd/Principal
B-WRITING INFORMAL INVITATIONS
*Written in a letter form, in informal format. Such letters are very persuasive in nature *Written in the first person
*Salutation is ‘dear + name’
*Complimentary close ‘yours sincerely’
*Date of writing the invitation is given
*The sender’s address appears on the left hand side *Various tenses used to suit the sense.
Content Relevance - name of the person(s) who is inviting; the invitee, date, day, chief, guest place Occasion etc. -
Expression - Grammatical accuracy, Language - 2 marks
REPLIES – FORMAL:
Accepting or Declining
-follow a set formula -formal words — kind invitation’, ‘great pleasure’, ‘regret’ etc. - Use the third person (‘they’) instead of first person (‘I’, we’) -
The address of the writer and the date to be written.
Accepting and declining -Like an ordinary letter
Do not use only informal words and expressions -use the first person (‘I’, ‘We’) SOLVED EXAMPLES Look at the following series of invitations (formal & informal) and their replies. The occasion is the same but the style is different. 40
1. FORMAL INVITATION
Mrs. Malathi & Mr. Venkatesh request the pleasure of your company at dinner on the occasion of their 50th Wedding Anniversary at 8 p.m. on Tuesday ,12th July 2011 at Hotel LEELA PALACE, Bangalore RSVP: 12,
Margosa Road, Malleswaram,
7th July 2011
Mrs. and Mr. Naidu were pleased to receive the invitation for dinner on the occasion of the 50th Wedding Anniversary of Mrs. and Mr. Venkatesh, and confirm their participation in the function. Best wishes
7th July 2011 Mrs. And Mr. Naidu thank Mrs. And Mr. Venkatesh for the invitation for dinner on the occasion of their 50th Wedding Anniversary on 12th July, 2011 at Hotel Leela Palace. However, they express their inability to be present on the occasion due to a prior engagement. Best wishes, Naidus
EXERCISES FOR PRACTICE 1. Your school is organizing the prestigious KVS National Level Social Science Exhibition in its premises. Draft an invitation in not more than 50 words giving all essential details. 2. You are Dharma raj, son of Ramesh Patnaik, Bannerghatta , Bangalore. Your father wants you to draft a formal invitation to be sent on the occasion of your sister, Sheela’s marriage. Prepare the invitation. 3. You are Mohan/Molly. You have been invited by Rotary Club to act as one of the judges for an Elocution Competition for students of classes XI and XII. But due to a previous engagement you cannot accept this invitation. Write a formal reply to the President of the Club regretting your inability to accept the invitation. 4. You are Aakash/Varsha. You have been invited to attend the wedding of your friend’s sister during the summer vacation. Respond to the invitation informally accepting it. 5. You have opened a restaurant in Uppal Road, Hyderabad. Draft an invitation for the inauguration of the same, specifying the chief guest and other important details like date, time and venue. Do not exceed 50 words. 6. Your school is organizing a Book Fair on its sprawling play-ground. Draft an invitation giving all the details including the chief guest.
5. LETTER WRITING (06 MARKS)
The most common form of written communication is the letter. Letters should have a format that goes with the latest conventions. Letter types include
Informal Letters-These are letters written to close associates.
Formal Letters include-
(a) business or official letters (for making enquiries, registering complaints, asking for and giving information, placing orders and sending replies; (b) Letters to the editor (giving suggestions on an issue); (c) Application for a job.
MARKING SCHEME OF LETTER WRITING
Format- 1 mark: Proper Layout – Sender’s address, Date, Receiver’s address, Subject, Salutation, Complimentary close. Content- 3 marks: Relevant ideas to be presented in a coherent way. Use connectors appropriately, Divide into paragraphs There should be minimum three paragraphs. Expression-2 marks: Grammatical accuracy, spellings
Coherence, relevance of ideas and style 1 Mark.
Note: No mark is awarded if only the format is given. Credit is given for the candidate’s originality and creativity in presenting his/her ideas. Mixing up of the traditional and modern layout is not acceptable.
INFORMAL LETTER : Example 17 L ,Model Town Karnal-132 001 10th Sept.2012 Dear Jack Hi ! Many thanks for your letter and fro the photographs that you have sent along with. They brought back very happy memories of our holiday. Indeed the time spent with you has ended up being one of the best I’ve lived so far. The expedition to Rohtang, long drives in the river beds and valley in Leh , monasteries- all seem to be out of the world. India is as fascinating as or more than I had expected. Your nice company just proved icing on the cake.
I’m glad to know that your school life is going on well. It must have been difficult , I guess, after holiday to come back to the rut of school routine. Anyway, that too is very important, isn’t it? Do let me know when you’re planning to visit us. I talk so much about you that people in my family are dying to see you . What joy it would be to see you, to have you amongst us again! I guess I’ve got to be going. I’m getting late for my weekly piano class. Catch you later. Bye Yours Rohan
Important points to remember while drafting letters:
Write the letter in the full block format (i.e. to the left)
State your reason for writing in the first paragraph and stay on track.
Always include specifics that will help ease the recipient’s task. For instance, if you are writing to a bank, mention your account number.
If you refer to other correspondence, quote date of the letter/s reference numbers,
file numbers, order numbers, cheque number with date. Include copies whenever possible.
Gently and respectfully direct the recipient’s course of action.
It may be strongly worded but always be courteous and use polite language and pleasant tone.
Self introduction should be avoided.
Informal expressions, greetings or contracted forms of words should not be used.
The language should be simple, straight forward and to the point.
Leave a line/ additional space between paragraphs since no indentation is followed.
Open punctuation to be followed. ( No punctuation marks to be used)
Do not mix up the old format and new format.
In letters to the editor – Do not ask the editor to solve the problems.
In job application letters Curriculum-vitae (CV) /Bio-data/ Resume/ should be written. It should not be included in the body of the letter but after the complimentary close as enclosure.
In the Letter to the Editor use ‘yours truly’ as the complimentary close.
FORMAT OF A LETTER Sender's Address
Devi Enclave Raj Ram Marg
Bangalore-21 14 April 20XX
Address of the Addressee: The Director/Mr/Mrs Global Enterprises, 8th cross, Victoria Layout, Bangalore
Introduction Body Conclusion Yours faithfully Rohan Mathur
Sample Letters You are Sidhi/ Sanjay of U-03 G Block Kasturi Nagar Mysore-37.Write a letter to the Director NGO Bird Links Society, Bangalore expressing your concern about the decrease in the number of the birds in Delhi.
House No- U/03 G Block Kasturi Nagar Mysore -37 30 June 2011 The Director NGO Bird Links Society Bangalore Karnataka Sir Sub: Diminishing number of birds: Need for Immediate Concern I wish to bring to your kind notice my growing concern about rapid decrease in the population of birds in Mysore. Mysore is known to have more than 500 species of birds but many of them are on the verge of extinction. According to the reports from the recent seminar held on Conservation of Birds, there was a time, when a number of birds would flock to the banks of river Kaveri, Bandipur wild life sanctuary and forested canopy in Mysore. These numbers have come crashing down in the recent years. The main reasons are rampant construction of buildings, bridges and flyovers, filling of swamps, mangroves water bodies , cutting of forests and of course, oather ways of environmental pollution. Many species have become endangered and the thousands of migratory birds flocking in seasons , which was a feast to our eyes, have left this place to more healthy places. It is time the people of Mysore were made aware of this grave situation by conducting seminars and workshops and the policy makers and administrator thought over the engulfing problem and found solutions. The locals should be given incentives for preserving the habitats of birds. Sanction for the construction of buildings, malls, bridges ands so on should be given only after proper evaluation of the environmental impact of those constructions over the life of species there. Let‟s not forget that birds are an important link in the food chain. I request the government, environmentalists and the society to show their concern before it is too late. Yours faithfully (Sidhi Sharma) 47
Sample Letter No-2 You are Suresh/Sarika Jain of No-20 Jawahar Nagar,Jaipur. Two months ago you bought a desert cooler from M/s Cool Home Coolers Jaipur. Now you discover that it is not working properly. Write a letter to the Manager Customer Care complaining about the malfunctioning of the unit and asking them to repair and if needed to replace it against warranty. 20 Jawahar Nagar Jaipur 24 June 2011
M/s Cool Home Cooler 20 Nehru Marg Jaipur Sir Sub : Complaint about the malfunctioning desert cooler Reference : Cash Memo No DC-98765 dated 17.4.2011 I wish to bring it to your notice that I purchased a ‘Cooler Home’ desert cooler from you on 17 April, 2011 (Vide Cash Memo No DC-98765, dated 17.04.2011). The cooler did function well in the beginning for one and a half months and then it has started giving problems. The problems are - water leakage, heavy noise while working and high consumption of power.
Kindly take immediate step to either repair the cooler or replace it as the cooler is still under warranty period.
Yours faithfully Suresh
Sample Letter No- 3 You are Isha/Ishan, the secretary of the Students’ Forum of Sahrudaya Vidyalaya, Indranagar. You have planned an excursion to Jog falls during the summer vacation. Write a letter to the General Manager, Southern Railway, for reservation of a bogie for 60 students from Bangalore to Shimoga and back, supplying all necessary information. Secretary Sahrudaya Vidyalaya Indranagar. 01 Mar 2012 The General Manager Southern Railways Bangalore Sub: Request for the reservation of a Bogie for 60 students Sir A group of 60 students of class XI of this school has planned to visit Jog Falls during the summer vacation. They will be accompanied by three teachers and two attendants. They plan to leave Bangalore on 15th May by Jeevan Express and return by the same train from Shimoga on 25th May.
Kindly confirm whether a bogie can be reserved for the above mentioned dates. We would also like to know the estimated fare so that we can make necessary arrangements at our end. The List of the members of the tour party is enclosed in the prescribed proforma. Kindly provide the eligible students‟ concession.We request you to send the detail at the earliest @ [email protected]/ @2852456 to enable us to plan in advance. Yours faithfully Isha Secretary 49
Sample letter No. 4 You are Satish/Sonali, the student prefect in charge of the school library. You have been asked by your Principal to write a letter to place an order for children’s story books (10 – 13 years). Write a letter to M.S.Book Depot Ramnagar, Bikaner placing an order for the books. Invent the necessary details. St. Mary’s Convent Jabalpur 15th July, 20… M/s M.S. Book Depot Ramnagar Bikaner Sir Sub: Placing Order for Children’s Story Books The school has decided to purchase story books for children between the age group of 10 and 13 years. The books mentioned below may please be sent by V.P.P. within 10 days from the date of receipt of this letter.
Name of the book
Stories from the Panchatantra
Tales from the Arabian Nights
The adventures of Tom Sawyer
Tales from Shakespeare
Charles & Mary Lamb
We request you to give 20 % discount on the printed prices. We assure you to pay the VPP charges at the time of delivery of books.
Yours faithfully Ram Kumar (RAM KUMAR) PRINCIPAL
QUESTIONS FOR PRACTICE
1. You are Manas/ Manasi at the Press Apartments of Sunder Nagar, Bihar. The main road leading to this colony has three man holes causing frequent accidents at night. There are no street lights on the main road. Write a letter to the Editor of the Times of India drawing attention of the government to this problem of the residents. 2. Write a letter to the Editor of a national daily inviting the attention of the authorities towards the increasing Environmental pollution in your city. 3. You are Vishal / Veena, a student of class XII of 10, Green Park, New Delhi is interested in learning languages. You come across an advertisement in The Times of India issued by The Institute of Foreign languages, New Delhi about the certificate course in Japanese offered by them. You decide to write a letter to the Director of the Institute seeking more information about the course duration, working hours, fee structure, etc. Write the letter. 4. As Mr. R. Singh, Head of the Department of Chemistry, Cambridge High School, Pune, you had placed an order with Messrs. Scientific Equipments, Dadar, Mumbai for test tubes and jar for the lab. When the parcel was received you observed that markings on the test tubes were not clear and some of the jars were damaged. Write a letter of complaint seeking immediate replacement. 5. You are the Manager of Fitness Club of Gandhi Road, Ernakulam. Write a letter to Messrs. Pioneer Sports Co, Kochi, placing an order for a minimum of 4 fitness equipments with details. 6. You are Rama/Raman, a member of Parent-Teacher Association of Little Valley Senior Secondary School, Shillong. Write a letter to the Principal of the school asking him to introduce vocational stream in the school providing facility of teaching such subjects as computers, insurance etc. so that the students may not needlessly continue academic studies. 7. Write a letter to the Corporation authorities of South Chennai to complain about the general unsustainable growth of building activities in South Chennai with poor parking and other civic amenities to support it. Urge them to plan with a long-term view. 8. The photocopier of your office which was purchased recently has a problem with the toner settings. It is still in the guarantee period. As Purchase Manager of Talent Search, 15th Cross, J.P. Nagar, Mysore, write to the manufacturer seeking replacement of the defective part. 9. Write a letter to the librarian of the District Library in your town asking for details regarding membership. Also ask about the timings and rules and regulations of the library.
10. You are Apoorva/Asha, Industrial colony, Ambattur, Chennai. You came across an advertisement for the post of Senior Executive, Accounts in Solace Medical Equipment, Chennai unit. Write a letter to the advertiser applying for the job. Also give your detailed resume. 11. You are Jolly of Class XII . You are interested in pursuing a course in visual communication. You have seen an advertisement issued by National Institute of Communication, Pune, offering courses in Media and Communication .Write a letter to the Director seeking information about their courses, free structure, placement opportunities etc.
6. WRITING A SPEECH (10 marks) A SPEECH is a formal talk that a person delivers to an audience. Please Note: * a speech begins with a formal address to the chief guest, fellow speakers and Audience * More conversational in tone. Pause questions, use interactive expressions like I think you will agree with me, Don‟t you think that , I am sure that you will have the same notion Does any one has the opinion that etc. * Begins with brief, catchy introduction- supported by an anecdote, quotation, striking statistical data or a thought provoking question. It decides the fate of the speech. * Introduce your topic to the audience clearly. * Include adequate supporting data to make it credible and interesting * Have clear idea about the purpose of the speech and the target audience. * Originality of ideas powerful language, humour and repetitions are allowed, only to emphasize or focus the listener‟s attention. * Similar to introduction, conclusion should be brief , catchy and striking * the written speech should consist of short sentences having not more than 10 to 12 words in a sentence. * No title to be given for the speech. *Avoid abstract phrases. Use simple and familiar language. The effects, such as raising one‟s voice, giving stress to certain words, pausing for a short time etc. can be represented in a written speech by using such techniques as increasing the size of the letters of the sentence to be stressed, or using all capitals for a particular word to be emphasized, leaving a few dots (….) after a question to indicate a pause. * Marking scheme is the same as for the article. * Say/Write ‘Thank you’ at the end of your speech.
A SAMPLE SPEECH You are a student volunteer of National Literacy Mission (NLM) wing of your school involved in the Adult Literacy Campaign: “Each one, Teach One”. Write out the speech you would be delivering at each place of your visit. Do not exceed 200 words. Dear Friends Good morning to you all We all have assembled here for a noble cause—a mission to eradicate illiteracy. It is the dream of the National Literacy Mission to educate all the Indians. We would work together for an India where EACH PERSON IS LITERATE. Most of the learners are adults who have a rich experience of life. Therefore, the learning strategies that will be adopted in our programme will be exploratory and interactive. We have to teach as well as learn. We must keep in mind certain important factors……… their experience, wisdom and maturity while discussing any topic. We should encourage them to talk and express their views in a frank and fair manner. We should always keep in mind the OBJECTIVES set for the adult illiterates. We have to make them literates. Inculcate in them a love for reading, writing and arithmetic. Let them do simple calculations and exult at the right calculations. Health awareness and job related problems are the next in order. IT IS ONLY AFTER A STRONG BRIDGE OF CONFIDENCE IS BUILT that we would be able to create in them awareness about civil rights, duties, privileges and obligations. When they become confident of their powers, we must create in them social awareness. Issues like environmental pollution, population control and employment generation can then be discussed…..In short let’s all resolve to make sincere efforts to achieve these goals. Thank you.
Questions for practice: Q.1.-Water is very precious. Some scientists even go to the extent of saying that the Third World War may be fought on the issue of water. Write a speech in 150-200 words expressing your views to be delivered in the morning assembly in your school. Q.2.-“To use the latest technology the right way, is in the hands of the youth today.” Write a speech 150-200 words discouraging the misuse of technological products like cell phones, computers etc and highlighting the need to use them to promote harmony and goodwill in the society. Q.3.-“Our Good Earth”, an environmental awareness magazine has launched a marathon 'Clean Your City’ campaign. As an active participant write a speech to be read out in the morning assembly urging students to participate in the campaign in 150-200 words. Q.4.-As a concerned citizen, you are worried about the harmful effects of the insanitary conditions in your town. Write a short speech on the necessity of sanitation, to be given at the morning assembly in your school. 7. ARTICLE WRITING Writing an article is an art. The dictionary defines an article as a piece of writing about a particular subject in a newspaper or magazine. An article is an expression of one’s thought on an issue or a subject logically and coherently written in meaningful paragraphs. POINTS TO REMEMBER
Give a title that catches the attention of the reader. Begin with a striking opening sentence which addresses the readers and gets them interested in the topic. Present a strong argument for your ideas supporting it with evidences or elaboration.
Use linking devices (however, therefore, although, even though, in order to…)to make the composition appear a whole. Introduce a new point at the beginning of an each paragraph that follows, to strengthen your ideas. Develop your ideas as much as you can to make them interesting and substantial. Conclude with your strongest point. Use passive voice, humor, emotive language, rhetorical questions to provide a specific effect.
FORMAT OF AN ARTICLE TITLE/HEADING BY LINE
: Eye-catching , illustrating the Central Themes : Writer’s Name under the title towards the right from the centre INTRODUCTION : A comprehensive introduction touching upon on the plus and minus of the topic. Establish the context Put the topic in perspective Draw readers’ attention. Specify and delimit your topic Put a rhetoric question or give some startling facts, statistics or quotation Content: Spell out the various aspects to the topic-merits, EXPOSITION OF THE: demerits , causes, consequences, effects, TOPIC advantages, disadvantages WINDING UP : Give your opinion, comments, criticism, recommendations, call for CONCLUSION : Conclude with a hope, a warning, an appeal or a call for the action
Split up of marks:
Total marks: 10
Format (title + writer’s name) : 1mark Content :(logical organization, relevance): 4 marks(Credit should be given for the candidate’s creativity in presenting her/her own ideas) Expression: 5 Accuracy: Grammatical, appropriate words & spelling : 2½ Fluency : Coherence and relevance of ideas and style : 2 ½
SAMPLE ARTICLE You are Vikranth / Vinitha, a freelance writer much concerned about the discriminatory treatment of women in the Indian society. Write an article in 150 – 200 words throwing light on this problem and giving suggestions for putting an end to it. (10 marks) DISCRIMINATION OF WOMEN Vikrant It is a pity that in a country where women are said to be worshipped, there is a widespread discrimination of them even before they are born and injustice meted out to them in such a male chauvinistic world in very many degrees. Certain brutal practices like the female feticide throw light on our attitude. The girl child is considered to be a liability and doesn’t enjoy the privileges of a boy. She is denied the advantage of proper education. The dowry system haunts parents and the harassment she is subjected to at the in-laws often force her to commit suicide. Even in enlightened homes, woman has to live her life under surveillance, if not in strict ‘purdah’. Working women are physically and verbally abused, denied opportunities of growth and subjected to discrimination. The social evils like dowry system, honour killing, human trafficking , societal dogmas etc. take great toll on women, be it daughter, mother, sister , wife, grandmother…. Education and economic independence only can empower women to fight for their rights. It is also the responsibility of the educated society to work for the cause of women. Proper law making and execution, spreading awareness , exemplary punishment for the predators etc. surely will bring positive changes. Let she not be worshipped but let her live a wholesome life. Let us live , let her live and let us help her live for a better developed society. Questions for practice 1. Write an article in about 200 words for your school magazine on ‘Films and their influence on school-going children’. You are Manpreeth / Manjula, a student of class XII. 2. You are Rohit / Kamal. You attended a seminar on Yoga, a way of life. Write an article in about 150 – 200 words on the contribution of yoga in leading a healthy and peaceful life.
3. In today’s world, letter-writing has lost its charm. People and the youth in particular rely more on mobiles and computers to communicate. Write an article on the present trend in about 150 to 200 words. You are Kiran / Karthik.
4. Recently you visited your ancestral home in a village in Gujarat. You were elated and strongly felt the necessity to hold on to the roots of our modern life, which lie in our villages. Write an article for your school magazine. You are Chetna / Chirag, Cultural Secretary of your school. 5. With rising number of people in almost all the big cities of the country, the rate of crime has also increased proportionately. The police needs to be trained in new methodology of combating the crime besides changing the mindset. Write an article in 150 – 200 words on the role of police in maintaining law and order in the metropolitan cities. You are Ravi/ Ravina. 6. The invention of mobile phone h it can be a blessing but if misused it can prove to be a curse. Write an article in about 150 – 200 words on this invention. You are Karthik / Karishma. 7. Presently the prices of essential commodities are skyrocketing causing much hardship to the common man. Write an article in 150 -200 words expressing your views and suggesting measures to curb this problem. 8. It is really a Do or Die struggle when we talk about environmental concerns. As an active member of the Green Club of your school write an article in about 150 – 200 words on your concerns and the need for change in our attitude and practices. 9. Computer and video games have become popular with children today. Outdoor games seem to have no place in their life anymore. You are Sakthi/ Sathish. You enjoyed playing hide-n-seek with your cousins in a small town. You found it so refreshing that you decide to write an article on the joys of playing outdoor games for the school magazine. Write it in about 200 words.
10. Children between 13 and 19 years of age are neither too young nor too mature. Today these children feel that the pressures of the competitive world they live in have made their lives less exciting. 11. India is standing at the threshold of joining the developed nations but that is not possible till we achieve complete literacy in the country. The contribution of students may be very significant in achieving our goals. Write in 150-200 words on ‘The Role of the Students in Removing Illiteracy.’ Write an article in 150-200 words expressing your views. You are Manish / Manisha.
SECTION : C: LITERATURE READER
Flamingo POEM 1: My Mother at Sixty Six : Kamala Das Gist of the poem:
The poet is driving from her parents home to Cochin by car, her mother by her side— sleeping –open mouthed very pale, colorless and frail-like a dead body indicating that her end was near.
The poet looks at her and feels intense pain and agony to realize that soon death will cast her mother from her.
Tries to divert her mind, looks outside at the young trees and happy children bursting out of their homes in a playful mood (a contrasting image)
After the security check at the airport looked again at her mother’s face—pale and cold.
“Familiar ache-My childhood fear” –the poet has always had a very intimate and close relationship with her mother and she has always felt the fear of being separated from her mother hence it is familiar.
The poet reassures her mother that they will meet again
Answer the following briefly 1.What do the parting words of the poet to her mother signify? The poet‟s parting words are expressive of the dilemma and confusion that the poet carries in her mind while her elongated smile is hollow, superficial and expresses her helplessness, fear and guilty feeling. At the same time, both the parting words and the smile are a supportive hope and comfort to the old woman to survive longer to meet again. 2.What are the kind of pain and fear that the poet feels? The poet feels the pain of separation from her mother, helplessly unable to take good care of her even at her old age. The fear is the familiar haunting one she moves through since her childhood that she is going to lose her mother being subjected to her declining health and age. 3.Why are the young trees described „sprinting‟ and the „merry children spilling‟? They are the symbols of life, energy vitality , movement and joyousness. It is to contrastingly intensify the, sad , inactive, spiritless, dying, pathetic condition of the poet‟s mother and thereby effectively express the aggravating dilemma , fear and ache of the poet. Both the images are pertinent for the understanding f the process of ageing and decay. 4. Why has the mother been compared to „late winter‟s moon‟? It is to convey the idea of the mother‟s ageing and decay ,taking analogy from seasonal changes. The late winter‟s moon appears pale and its brightness dimmed in fog and mist. Likewise , the old mother in declining health appears pale, grey, inactive, energy less ageing and decaying to death. 5.What does the poet notice about her mother while travelling in the car? The poet notices that her aged, ill, decaying mother is dozing off leaning against her body comforted by her presence. There is an expression of pain on her pale face due to her worries and anxieties. The pathetic plight of her mother triggers off the poet‟s fear about losing her mother soon. 6.What thought does Kamala Das put away while travelling with her mother in a car? Why do you think she puts them away? The pale , decaying plight of the mother drives the biting ache, pain and guilty feeling in the poet that the poet could not care her mother and she would die soon. She forcibly pushes the thought away as she is helpless to overcome the reality which is sickening and dreadful.
Now try these questions: 1. What does Kamala Das see looking out of the car window? 2. How does the poet describe the old age of her mother? 3. What do the „sprinting tree ‟ and „merry children spilling‟ stand for? How are these images significant in the poem? 4. What childhood fear is the poet talking about? Why is it called a childhood fear? 5. How does the childhood fear affect the poet throughout her life? 6. How does Kamala Das bid farewell to her mother? What does that show about her mental state? 7. What thoughts, do you think disturbed Kamala Das at the airport? 8. Why could not the poet express her sincere thoughts to her mother at the airport? 9. What is the theme of the poem? 10. The fear and anxiety of the poet is universal than personal. Do you think so? Why? 11. This poem is unpunctuated and in one loosely held sentence. What does implications does it suggest about the meaning of the poem? 12. What does the title ‟My Mother at Sixty Six‟ signify?
Read the stanza and answer the following briefly 1.“I looked again at her, wan pale as a late winter’s moon and felt that old familiar ache, my childhood’s fear, but all I said was, see you soon, Amma and all I did was smile and smile and smile……”
a) Who looked pale and wan and why? (1) b) What was the speaker‟s familiar ache? (1) c) Explain “as a late winter‟s moon”. (1) d) Name the poem and the poet. (1)
2… but after the airport’s security check, standing a few yards away, I looked again at her, wan pale as a late winter’s moon…”
a. Comment on the significance of „again‟. (1) b. Who is „her‟ and how does „her‟ appear now? (1) c). Identify the figure of speech in the above stanza and explain. (2) 3. …. And felt that old familiar ache, my childhood fear, but all I said was, see you soon, Amma, and all I did was smile and smile and smile…” a). Why is the word „smile ‟repeated in the above lines? (1) b). How is the „ache ‟ become familiar to her? (1) c). Explain the dilemma the speaker is facing here. (2)
POEM 2 An Elementary School Classroom in a Slum.
GIST OF THE POEM
In this poem the poet focuses on the theme of social injustice and inequalities. He presents the pathetic and miserable picture of the elementary classroom in a slum. These children have pale and lifeless faces. They are like rootless weeds which are uncared and unwanted with their disorderly hair torn around their faces. They are depressed and oppressed with the burdens of life and keep their heads down. They have stunted growth. They inherit the diseases of their father. Some of them do have dreams. A sweet young boy is sitting at the back of the dim classroom. He is dreaming of a squirrel‟s game in the trees and probably other interesting things. The walls are dirty and creamy and on them are hung the donations given by the rich and also Shakespeare‟s portrait. A civilized dome found in the cities and Tyrolese valleys with beautiful flowers are also put up. The map on the wall shows the children, the beautiful world outside; but for these children of the slum it is meaningless. The children studying in these schools do not have the means to go and explore the world. For them what they see through their classroom windows, the narrow street and the lead sky is the world. Shakespeare is wicked for them as he has written only about the rich, beautiful world tempting them to steal.
The map is of no interest to them because it does not reflect the world they live incramped and dark lanes.
Their lives start in darkness and ends in utter darkness.
They are undernourished and their poverty has distorted their vision as they spend their whole time in foggy slums.
The poet feels that the map which shows beautiful and exotic places should be replaced with slums as it is not the world they live in.
Unless the governor inspector and visitor play a vital role in bringing about a change, their lives will remain in dark.
The slum children will be able to peep through the window only when the gap between the two worlds is bridged.
They should break the barriers till they come out of the dirty surroundings and their world should be extended into the green fields, golden sands and bright world.
They should have the freedom of expression and their outlook be broadened.
For, only the educated and learned people can create history whose language has strength and power.
Understand the poem in terms of Poetic devices: Imagery:
Like rootless weeds: the coarse, untidy and unkempt hair of the slum children is similarised to rootless weeds to bring forth the idea that the children were malnourished.
Like bottle bits on stones: the shining mended glasses of the spectacles is contrasted against the dark complexion of the malnourished slum children. The mental framed, broken glasses of the spectacles of the slum children is similarised to the shining bottle bits on stones.
The slum children settled on the waste heap is similarised to the splinters and pieces of broken bottle/glass against stones. 62
Like the broken glasses of the spectacles, the hopes , aspirations , ambitions lives of these slum children are completely shattered. Like catacombs: The slum children are living in dark and dingy rooms which are similarised to catacombs in subterranean cemetery. The windows of these rooms look like the lids of catacombs. The future of the slum children is shut for ever like the dead bodies in the catacombs. Slum as bid as doom: slum is similarised to hell of death. Living in slum is worse than death, rather it is a living hell. Metaphors: Rat’s eyes: suggests the boy’s curious, anxious and insecure nature. Like a rat always insecure, on the move, searching for food and safety, this small boy too shares the same condition. Father’s gnarled disease: the boy’s father is handicapped with a crooked body. The boy has inherited his father’s disease and the malnourished body of the paper seeming boy is no better than the crooked, disease-stricken body of his father. Squirrel’s game: Like the squirrel enjoys his freedom playing feely everywhere in nature, the boy also wants to play and enjoy his life with his endless curiosity. But he Is forced to be in the dark,dull and dreary classroom of the slum school.
Tree room: The hiding place of squirrel with great, comfort , security , curiosity and fun is contrasted with the gloomy and dull class room of the little boy. Future painted with fog: Just as fog blocks, blurs or ruins vision, the slum children’s future is vague and blurred with hopelessness, frustrations and lack of empathy and upliftment. Lead sky: The normal bright and blue sky is described as lead sky, suggesting the dark and dull sky just as the base metal lead is . There is no blue and bright sky of life and future for the slum children. Spectacles of steel: The poverty-stricken, skinny and skeletal bodies of the slum children look like wiry framework of steel just like that of a pair of spectacles. The expression also suggest the view of mass of students, visually impaired wearing low-cost and unhealthy spectacles with metal frames. These poor children are deprived of everything due to the callous attitude of the government officials. Answer the following briefly 1.Why do you think the poet has used the expression ‘sour cream’? The expression ‘sour cream’ was used to describe the dull and pale walls of the classrooms. It expresses the sickening and repulsive atmosphere of the classroom as well as the hopelessness that engulfs the student’s lives.
2. How does the wall decorations of the classroom contrast with the reality of the slum children? The classroom walls are decorated with picture of Shakespeare’s , buildings with domes, world maps and beautiful valleys symbolizing study of classical literature(education), power , wealth & progress, the great world of opportunities and the beautiful nature respectively. In sharp contrast, these slum children are living in the slum with dull, dreary atmosphere of bleak future. 3.How can the life of the slum children be changed? The life of the slum children can be changed by providing them healthy environment to live, open up opportunities to experience and enjoy the beauty of the world outside and help the accumulate the wealth of knowledge and wisdom through right education. 4. What spectacles of the slum and slum children does the poet bring out through the poem? The slum children are living in extreme poverty, ill-health and pathetic living atmosphere. They inherit their parents’ diseases, and are deprived of all basic necessities of life.. Though they are studying in a school in a slum, it is in a pathetic plight and nobody bothers about the children and they have a bleak future. 5. What is the theme of the poem?
This poem deals with the theme of social injustice and class inequalities. The poet presents it by talking of the two different and incompatible worlds- the world of the rich and the civilized and the world of the poor and the deprived. This gap can be bridged by the administrative authorities and through education. 6. ‘So blot their maps with slums as big as doom’. What does the poet want to convey? The poet is angry at the social equalities in the world. There are two worlds – the dirty slums and the prosperous and the beautiful world of the rich. The poet wants the map of the world should also have blots of slums as big as the ‘doom’. In reality he wants the gap to be reduced. 7. ‘History is theirs whose language is the sun’. Explain. This statement means that those who have the courage and conviction to break free from the constraints of life are the ones who create history. One can make a mark only if one can outshine others. Education only can give them power and strength like the sun which will bring about a change in the lives of the people. 7. What does the poet mean by ”let their tongues run naked into books”? The poet sees hope for the children in education. He strongly thinks that the lives of these children will remain dark, narrow and unfulfilled unless they are educated. These childrencan make themselves free from the shackles of slums only when we give opportunities to them for education and employment.
8.How are the slum children victims of social injustice? The children are victims of social injustice as they are deprived of the bounties of the world . They are impoverished, undernourished and deprived of the basic necessities of life. Their right to education, safe healthy and secure living are denied to him mocking the system of social justice in the country. Answer these questions
1. “Unless, governor, inspector, visitor, This map becomes their window and these windows That shut upon their lives like catacombs.” (a) Why does the poet invoke ‘governor, ‘inspector’ and ‘visitor’? The poet invokes the ‘governor, ‘inspector’ and ‘visitor’ because they are the powerful people who can bring about a drastic change in the miserable lives of the slum children. They can remove the social injustice and class inequalities. (b) What does ‘this map’ refer to? How can it become ‘their window’? This map refers to the beautiful world of the rich. Their window refers to holes and the stinking slums of the unfortunate children of the slum. This can become their window only when the difference between the two worlds is abridged. (c) What have ‘these windows’ done to their lives? These windows have cramped their lives, stunted their physical and mental growth shutting them inside filthy and dingy holes, keeping them away from the vast world of development and opportunities . (d) What do you understand by catacombs? Catacombs are long underground graves. Here they stand for the dirty slums which blockin which the slum children are confined. (e) Which literary device has been used here ? Explain. Simile has been used here to describe the oppressive effect of the surroundings on their pathetic lives. The slum walled in against the world of opportunities and development is similarised to catacombs.’ 2. “Break O break open till they break the town And show the children fields, and make their world Run azure on gold sands, and let their tongues Run naked into books the white and green leaves open History theirs whose language is the sun.” 65
a). What is the hope of the poet in these lines? The poet hopes that one day these children would break free from the chains of the slums. They will rise above all atrocities and economic injustice and will create a beautiful world for themselves. b).What kind of world does the poet visualize for the children? The poet visualizes a world of freedom to enjoy the nature’s bounty in a carefree manner. They would be enjoying all the opportunities in life and will enjoy the fruit of social justice and empathy and develop themselves into successful ones. c).What does the ‘green fields’ and ‘gold sands’ symbolize? The expressions are symbolic of a carefree and happy life.. It refers to a world where social and econo9mic injustice does not prevail and everyone enjoys the right to live happily. d). Explain ‘ let their tongue run naked into books.’ The poet strongly feels that the lives of these children will be very miserable and unfulfilled unless they are educated. Thus , he wishes tht these children be exposed to the world of books. e). What does ‘Sun’ in the last line suggest? Sun is the symbol of grace , light, energy and a life-giving force. Here it refers to the light of education. The poet strongly believes that it is educated alone who can transform the world and to transform the slum children , they should be given the power of education. f). ‘History is theirs whose language is the sun’—Explain To create history , one has to has to toil and shine like a sun, a source of energy and inspiration. People who have the courage and conviction to break free from the constraints of life are the ones who create history. QUESTIONS FOR PRACTICE 1.Read the stanza and answer the questions that follows: ”Surely, Shakespeare is wicked, the map a bad example, With ships and sun and love tempting them to stealFor lives that turn in their cramped holes From fog to endless nights.” i) Name the poem and the poet ii) Why has Shakespeare been described as wicked? iii) Why is the map a bad example? iv) What tempts them to steal? v) How do the children continue to live? vi) Explain: ‘From fog to endless night.’ 66
2.Read the stanza and answer the questions that follows: “The stunted, unlucky heir Of twisted bones, reciting a father gnarled disease His lesson from his desk. At the back of the dim class One unnoted , sweet and young. His eyes live in a dream Of squirrels game, in tree room, other than this.” a) Who is being referred to in the first two lines? b) Explain ‘father’s gnarled disease’. c) Who sit at the back of the class? How is he different from others? d) Explain his eyes live in a dream? e) What is the comparison drawn with squirrels game? 3. “On their slag heap, these children Wear skins peeped through by bones and spectacles of steel With mended glass, like bottle bits on stones. All of their time and space are foggy slum So blot their maps with slums as big as doom.” a).What does ‘slag heap ’refer to? b). Explain ‘skin peeped through by bones’. c). What is the comparison drawn with ‘bottle bits on stones’? d).Why does the poet see the slums ‘as big as doom’? SHORT ANSWER QUESTIONS 1. What is that these children inherit from their parents? What does it signify? 2. How has the poet described the colour of the wall and why? 3. The poet presents two different worlds. What are they? 4. What picture of the slum children does the poet draw? 5. Where does the poet see hope and relief? 6.. How does the poet bring to light the brutalities of slum life? 8. Explain ‘Open handed map, awarding the world its world’. 9. In what way are the slum children ‘unsung fighters’?
Poem 3: Keeping Quiet Gist of the poem: The poet talks about the need of silence and quiet introspection and the importance of quietude and calmness. He also talks about creating a feeling of mutual understanding among human beings. The poet asks us to keep still and count up to twelve. He also asks us to sit still. For a moment we should not speak any language. We should not move our arms so much. It will be a moment of complete silence without rush or worry. This would be an exotic moment. 67
Then a sudden strangeness will prevail which we will all enjoy. It will be bliss. The fisherman would not harm the whales on the cold sea. Even the man gathering salt would stop working and look at his hurt hands and reflect at the pain and harm his strenuous task has caused him. All kinds of wars must be stopped at once. The green wars against the environment, wars with poisonous gases, firearms, must be stopped at once. People who are all the time preparing for wars leaving no survivors behind ought to find time to wear clothes and walk around with their brothers strengthening the message of peace and brotherhood. At the same time the poet cautions not to confuse stillness with total inactivity. Life is an ongoing process and should not be associated with death. It is to be lived with positive attitude. He does not want us to ruminate over death. But he feels that if for once we do not focus ourselves single-mindedly to keep our lives moving but do some introspection or spend some time in silence doing nothing, we can understand ourselves better and escape from the threatening calls of death. The earth can teach us a lesson how everything comes to a dead end and comes to life again. In the same manner a quiet introspection can bring all evil thoughts to an end and bring in a new life of peace and tranquility. Now the poet will count up to twelve and they should keep quiet and he will go.
SOLVED QUESTIONS 1.
Read the stanza and answer the questions that follows: “Fishermen in the cold sea Would not harm whales And the m an gathering salt Would look at his hurt hands.” a) What is ‘fisherman’ symbolic of? The fisherman symbolizes man’s indiscriminate exploitation of nature for his vested interests. b) What will happen when fishermen do not harm whales? The whales will be no longer on the verge of extinction. A sense of co-existence can go into the minds of people. c) What has happened to the man gathering salt? What must he do? The man gathering salt has injured his hands. He must take care of his hurt hands and should realize that his actions are self-destructive.
d) What would happen in this moment of silence? He will become conscious of the harm causing to others and to themselves and will work towards a better tomorrow peace , co-existence, mutual understanding and harmony. e) What image does the poet create in the last line? He creates the image of incessant suffering. In his effort to add comforts to his life he has paid no heed to the pain that caused him. 2. Read the stanza and answer the questions that follows: ” Perhaps the earth can teach us As when everything seems dead And later prove to be alive Now I’ll count up to twelve And you keep quiet and I will go.” a) Who can teach us and what? The earth can teach us.The Earth can teach us how new life emerges from the ashes of the dead remains. Likewise quiet introspection will enable us to live a life of peace and harmony. c) Why does the speaker count up to twelve? It is a part of initiation in meditation. All distractions and digressions are washed away and man is in a moment of bliss. d) Explain-‘you keep quiet and I will go’? The poet wants us all to keep quiet and experience the moment of realization and peace. He will go and pass on the message to another group of people. Short Answer Questions 1. Why does Pablo Neruda urge us to keep still? Stillness is necessary for reflection and quiet introspection. We can hear the voice of our conscience and thus withdraw ourselves from undesirable actions and contribute to create a society of peace and mutual understanding. 2. ’Under the apparent stillness there is life’. Justify. The poet does not want to equate stillness with total inactivity. Under the apparent stillness there is life. We can learn it from the earth when everything seems dead, the earth still remains alive. The life on earth goes on under the apparent stillness. 3. Why do men become sad? How can this sadness be overcome? Men fail to understand themselves. They are always threatening themselves with death. When they do not understand themselves they become sad. A long silence might interrupt this sadness and make them good. 69
QUESTIONS FOR PRACTICE “What I want should not be confused With total inactivity Life is what it is about I want no truck with death.” 1. What is the desire of the poet? 2. What does ‘total inactivity’ imply? 3. Why does the poet say that he does not want his wish to be confused with total inactivity? 4. Explain-‘I want no truck with death’. “Those who prepare green wars, Wars with gas, wars with fire, Victory with no survivors, would put on clean clothes and walk about with their brothers in the shade, doing nothing. ” a). Whom does ‘those’ refer to here? b). Explain ’green wars, wars with gas , wars with fire.’ c).What does the poet mean by ‘victory with no survivors’? d).What would happen when men ‘put on clean clothes’? e).What lesson will man learn when he just walks about with his brothers doing nothing?
“If we were not so single-minded about keeping our lives moving, and for once could do nothing, perhaps a huge silence might interrupt this sadness of never understanding ourselves and of threatening ourselves with death.”
a). Who does ‘we’ refer to here? b). What is man ‘single-minded about’? c). Explain ‘keeping our lives gong’ d).How would man benefit if he does nothing and keep quiet? e). What is the sadness of ‘never understanding ourselves’? f). How has man threatened himself with death?
SHORT ANSWER QUESTIONS FOR PRACTICE 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7.
Why shouldn’t we speak any language and move our arms so much? How does the poet distinguish ‘stillness’ from ‘total inactivity’? Explain. “I want no truck with death.” Explain. What are the various wars mentioned? What is the result of these wars? What would be the result of quietude? What is the ‘exotic moment ’mentioned in the poem and how can we achieve it? What has man single-mindedly focused on and to what effect? Poem: 4 A Thing of Beauty GIST OF THE LESSON
The Poet, John Keats says that beautiful things will never become ‘nothing’ as they will continue to hold us in their spell and sooth our soul. Every beautiful thing is like a band that ties us to this earth as it makes us want to live and enjoy these things of beauty. And these things of beauty, according to the poet, are the things that give hope to human beings and make them want to live, in spite of all the sorrow, ill-health and unpleasant experiences that we face on earth. Some of the beautiful things on this earth that have such an effect on us are the sun, the moon, trees, streams, flowers, forests, beautiful monuments that we have erected for the dead, all the lovely tales that we have heard or read. Finally he compares all these beautiful things to the immortal drink (of perenniality)or nectar given to us by gods or gifts of God. Thus he states his firm belief in the Divine.
Solved Questions “yes , in spite of all, Some shape of beauty moves away the pall From our dark spirits. Such the sun, the moon , Trees old, and young, sprouting a shady boon For simple sheep: and such are daffodils” a. What does ‘in spite of all’ refer to? The expression refers to all the pessimistic and negative thoughts that obstruct our way to happiness. In spite of the sense of hopelessness and gloom that overshadow and darken our way, we are able to find our happiness in the beautiful objects on nature.
b. What , according to the poet , drives away the sadness from our life? Beauty, in shape or form, helps in driving away the sadness and despair from the dark recesses of our spirit. c. What does the reference ‘simple sheep’ symbolize? Lambs and sheep are envisioned as the embodiments of innocent and serene beauty. Jesus Christ, as an apostle of peace, was a shepherd and was seen surrounded by his flock of sheep , his followers. The poet has made specific reference to the sheep as symbols of ‘divine beauty’. “…. We have imagined for the mighty dead; All lovely tales tht we have heard or read; An endless fountain of immortal drink, Pouring unto us from the heaven’s brink.” a). Who are the ‘mighty dead’? The ‘mighty dead refers to those great men and warriors who glorified death by embracing it most gracefully and bravely.’ b). Why does the poet make this reference? The poet refers to ‘mighty dead’ because beauty can be seen not only in birth and growth , but also in a magnificent death. c).What ‘lovely tales have we heard or read’? A glorified and magnificent death get recorded in the leaves of history, leaving an indelible imprint on it. It remains an everlasting source of motivation to all those who read or hear about such great men who achieved glory in death. d).What is referred to as ‘endless fountain of immortal drink’? Beauty in all respects, whether in growth or in decay , is a perennial source of motivation. It is an endless fountain from where we can drink we can drink the immortal elixir of life. e). Explain “ Pouring unto us from the heaven’s brink.” Beauty is the greatest gift of God to man which has been showered upon us from the heavens above. This beauty is eternal and everlasting, in whose glory men on earth bask and derive their perennial source of joy and happiness. Short Answer Questions: (a) What according to Keats are the things that cause suffering and pain? The poet says that a scarcity of good-natured people or in other words the wicked people outnumber the good people. And the source of all our sorrows is either ill-health or another human being. 72
(b) What makes human beings love life in spite of all the suffering? Answer: The poet says that the beautiful things on earth lifts the pall off our spirits and make life worth living. Each beautiful thing is like a link that forms a chain or wreath that binds us to this earth. (c) Why does the poet say ‘mighty dead’? Answer: Monuments are erected in memory of people who were mighty or great when they lived. Physically mighty as in mighty warriors or mentally might as in great poets, writers or philosophers. Their tombs provide inspiration for the living through their beauty just as their works continue to do. Questions for practice: 1. “A thing of beauty is a joy forever Its loveliness increases, it will never Pass into nothingness; but will keep a bower quiet for us, and a sleep full of sweet dreams, and health, and quiet breathing Therefore, on every morrow, are we wreathing A flowery band to bind us to the earth.” a. What is the special virtue of a beautiful thing? b. How does it bless us? c. Explain the expression “A bower quiet for us”. d. What do we do everyday? 2. “the mid forest brake, rich with a sprinkling of fair musk-rose blooms; and such too is the grandeur of the dooms who have imagined for the mighty dead; All lovely tales that we have heard or read; An endless fountain of immortal drink, Pouring unto us from the heaven’s brink.” a. What do you mean by ‘brake’? Where does it grow? What makes it all the more beautiful? b What do you mean by ‘the grandeur of the dooms’? c. “All lovely tales that we have heard or read” Explain d. What is the source of the beauty of nature? What is its effect on us? 73
3. “Some shape of beauty moves away the pall from our dark spirits. Such the sun, the moon, trees old, and young, sprouting a shady boon for simple sheep; and such are daffodils with green world they live in; and clear rills that for themselves a cooling covert make ‘against the hot season; the mid forest brake Rich with a sprinkling of fair musk-rose blooms” a. What type of beauty and its effect are mentioned here ? b. What sprouts a shady boon for sheep and how? c. How do ‘daffodils’ and rills enrich the environment? d. What makes the mid-forest brake rich? Short answer Questions 1. How do we wreathe a flowery band? 2. Why do human beings suffer or what depresses the human soul? 3. What does Keats mean by the ‘grandeur of doom’? 4. How do we bind ourselves to the earth every morning? 5. Why and how is ‘grandeur’ associated with the mighty dead? 6. What is the source of the ‘endless fountain’ and what is its effect? 7. What is the message of the poem/what philosophy of life is highlighted in the poem?
Poem : 5 Aunt jennifer’s Tiger Gist of the poem The poet is a feminist and she addresses the difficulties of a married woman. She spends good amount of time in embroidering panel of tigers prancing across the screen. The tigers are fearless creatures pacing elegantly and majestically. They symbolize the spirit of freedom. Aunt is a victim of male chauvinism (male domination). Aunt Jennifer is so oppressed and terrified that she finds it hard to pull the needle. The “weight of Uncle’s wedding band “expresses how victimized and oppressed she is. It implies that aunt Jennifer has to work hard to meet his expectation. She spends her life in fear but she embroiders on the panel the fearless tigers to express her secret longing for a life of freedom and confidence. Even her death does not end the problem and torture which a married woman experiences..
SOLVED QUESTIONS 1.”Aunt Jennifer’s tigers prance across a screen, Bright topaz denizens of a world of green. They do not fear the men beneath the tree: They pace in sleek chivalric certainty.” a) What does the expression ‘Aunt Jennifer’s tigers imply? Aunt Jennifer was embroidering a panel of prancing tigers. The poet refers to the tigers as Aunt Jennifer’s tigers because they are her creation, her work of art. b) What does ‘prancing tigers’ symbolize? Prancing tigers are a symbol of the spirit of freedom within Aunt Jennifer which remains subdued. They also symbolize her fear of her male counterpart. c) Why are they referred to as ‘denizens of a world of green’? The tigers are the dwellers of the green forest so they are referred to as denizens. d) What qualities of the ‘tigers’ are highlighted here? Fearlessness and ferocity of the tigers are highlighted here. Aunt Jennifer’s nervousness and timidity are in sharp contrast to wild ferocity of the tigers who are not afraid of hunting men. Unlike Aunt Jennifer, the tigers fear nothing. e) Explain; “They pace in sleek chivalric certainty”. The movement of the tigers is sleek, stealthy, sure, majestic and elegant. They are sure of their purpose. Gallant and confident, they move ahead fearlessly and undeterred 2.”Aunt Jennifer’s fingers fluttering through her wool Find even the ivory needle hard to pull. The massive weight of Uncle’s wedding band Sits heavily upon Aunt Jennifer’s hand.” a) Why do Aunt Jennifer’s fingers flutter through her wool? Aunt Jennifer lives in constant fear of her chauvinist husband. She feels so nervous and terrified that her hands shake and flutter when she sits down to knit. b) Why does she find it hard to pull the ivory needle? Confronting constant fear and bearing the constraints of married life , she has become a nervous wreck. She finds it difficult to pull the ivory needle through the tapestry more because of mental suppression than because of physical weakness. c) Explain: ‘massive weight of Uncle’s wedding band’. The expression is symbolic of male authority and power. Matrimony binds the woman physically as well as mentally, clipping her of her freedom of expression and independence. Likewise Aunt Jennifer is trapped in gender oppression and feels herself burdened by the authority of her husband. 75
d) How is Aunt Jennifer affected by the ‘weight of matrimony’? Aunt Jennifer cannot do things freely, she tries to come up to the expectation of her husband, she seems to have lost her identity. The freedom that she dreams of through her art is itself symbolic of her oppressed self. 3.”When Aunt is dead, her terrified hands will lie Still ringed with ordeals she was mastered by. The tigers in the panel that she made Will go on prancing, proud and unafraid.” a) What is Aunt Jennifer’s death symbolic of? Aunt Jennifer’s death is symbolic of her complete submission to her suppression. b) Explain: “terrified hands”. Aunt Jennifer is terrified by her dominating husband and hence her hands are shivering. c) What does ‘ringed with ordeals’ imply? Aunt Jennifer has been so victimized in her life that even after death she remains trapped in the struggles of the spirit. Though we do not know what terrors Aunt Jennifer had to live with relatives did, we find her a victim of gender injustice and oppression. d) Is the society in any way affected by Aunt Jennifer’s death? Since the society is male dominated, it shows no concern for Aunt’s suffering, even her death. The loss of her freedom is her individual loss. The society is not affected by it and the state of women still remains the same. e) Explain: “the tigers in the panel….will go on prancing, proud and unafraid”. The expression is symbolic of the dispassionate and unconcerned attitude of the male towards the desire for freedom among women. Even after her death, the social milieu remains unaffected, arrogant and ferocious. SHORT ANSWER QUESTION S 1. How do Aunt Jennifer’s tiger look like? The tigers, made by Aunt Jennifer on the screen, are jumping and playing about without any fear of the men beneath the tree. They walk in elegance and style displaying the spirit of courage, fearlessness, strength and confidence. 2. What do the tigers made by the Aunt symbolize? The tigers made by Aunt Jennifer symbolize the spirit of courage, strength and fearlessness Aunt Jennifer, a victim of male oppression, expresses her crushed feelings in the form of art. So, the tigers are symbolic of the fear of male domination with which Aunt Jennifer suffers.
3. Why do you think Aunt Jennifer’s hands are fluttering through her wool? Why is she finding the needle so hard to pull? Aunt Jennifer is victimized by the overbearing and dominant nature of her husband. Her life has become a torture due to her suppression by her atrocious husband. The fear of her authoritative husband has gone so deep into her being that she seems to have lost all strength and energy. Thus her hands shake and flutter so much that she is not even able to pull the needle through the tapestry. 4. What do you understand by “massive weight of uncle’s wedding band”? Generally ‘wedding band’ is a symbol of joy and happiness. But in case of Aunt Jennifer, it has become a symbol of torture and oppression. Her relationship with her authoritative husband has become a painful burden to carry. Her ‘wedding band’ has brought her a world of pain, misery and torture. She has lost her freedom and entered a world of humiliation and oppression. 4. Explain ’her terrified hands will lie, still ringed with the ordeals she was mastered by’. These lines convey Aunt’s complete submission to the oppressive authority of her husband. The fear of her husband has gone so deep into her being that even death cannot liberate her from the chains of her mental suppression. Memories of her husband’s tortures and atrocities which bent her into a humiliating slavery will continue to haunt her even after her death. 6. Explain ‘The tigers in the panel------------proud and unafraid.’ Here the tigers symbolize the unquestioned authority of man enjoyed by him over his woman counterpart. The lines suggest the dispassionate and unconcerned attitude of the male towards the desire for freedom among women. Here, Aunt Jennifer tries to find an escape in her art but ends up portraying an image of her own suppression. While woman can never free herself from the oppressive authority of her male counterpart, the male, on the other hand will go on enjoying his authoritative arrogance and ferocity without any fear of regrets. Questions for Practice: 1.What ideology does the poem propound? 2.How is the poem a forceful expression of the evil of patriarchy? 3The tigers are contrasting symbols. Do you think so? How? 4.Wht ordeals do you think Aunt Jennifer is surround by? 5.Why do you think Aunt Jennifer created animals that are so different from her own character? 6. What impression do you form about the Uncle in the poem. Cite evidences. 77
1. The Last Lesson: Alphonse Daudet Gist of the lesson:
Franz is afraid of going to school as he has not learnt participles. He wants to enjoy beauty of nature. The bright sunshine, the birds chirruping in the woods, Prussian soldiers drilling but resisted. Bulletin board: all bad news, lost battles, the drafts and orders of the commanding officers: wondered what it could be now The changes he noticed in the school. -
Instead of noisy classrooms everything was as quiet as Sunday morning The teacher does not scold him and told him very kindly to go to his seat The teacher dressed in his Sunday best. Villagers occupying the last benches- To pay tribute to M. Hamel for his 40 yrs of sincere service and also to express their solidarity with France.
M. Hamel making the announcement that that would be the last French lesson; realizes that, that was what was put up on the bulletin board. Franz realizes that he does not know his own mother tongue Regretted why he had not taken his lessons seriously. Also realizes the reason why teacher was dressed in his Sunday best and villagers sitting at the back. M. Hamel realizes that all three, the children , the parents and he himself are to be blamed for losing respect and regard for the mother tongue. Always keep the mother tongue close to your heart as it is the key to the prison of slavery. Atmosphere in class: teacher teaching sincerely and patiently, students and others studying with utmost sincerity. Franz wonders sarcastically if Prussians could force pigeons to coo in German. M. Hamel overcome with emotions could not speak and wrote on the black board “Long Live France”.
SOLVED QUESTIONS: SHORT ANSWER QUESTIONS: 1. What was the narrator’s greatest fear as he moved towards the school? Franz had started late for school and thus was afraid of being scolded . His fear gripped him further for he was also unprepared. He had not learnt his lesson regarding the rules of participles and thus dreaded the teacher’s anger. 2. What was more tempting to Franz rather than going to school? The weather was pleasant, warm and bright. The chirruping birds were inviting him, the soldiers drilling in the field were also outdoors and Franz was not prepared with participles. 3. What was the news which was put up on the bulletin board? For the last two years all bad news – the lost battles, the orders of the commanding officer was displayed on the notice board. That day, the news that only German would be taught in school of Alsace and Lorraine was displayed on the notice-board which made the crowd gather there to read the news. 4. What was so unusual about the school on that day? Usually there would be a great bustle of opening and closing of the desk, lesson repeated loudly and the teacher’s ruler rapping on the table but that day was very calm and quiet like Sunday morning. The back benches which were usually empty were occupied by the village people and M. Hamel wore his special dress and was pacing up and down with a ruler under his arm. 5. Why were the villagers seated on the back benches? All the village elders were seated on the back benches as a tribute to the teacher who had put in 40 years of sincere service. It was also their way of expressing regret for not learning their mother tongue when they had the chance. They were also expressing their patriotism and solidarity with France. 6. Franz didn’t learn French whom did M. Hamel blame? M. Hamel didn’t blame Franz for not learning but his parents who were not anxious to have him learn. Instead they wanted him to work on a farm or at the mill to earn money. Even M. Hamel was also to be blamed for sending him to water the flowers instead of learning and when he wanted to go fishing he declared holiday.
8. What did M. Hamel say about French language? He said that it is the most beautiful language in the world- the clearest, the most logical. He requested them to guard it so that they can be united and fight back for their freedom. 9. What happened when the church clock struck 12? The moment the church clock struck 12 the Prussian army came to take over and M. Hamel stood up, wanted to tell something but his voice was chocked. He gathered his strength and wrote on the black board as large as he could – ‘Vive La France’ and dismissed the school. LONG ANSWER QUESTIONS 1. Justify the title of the story “The Last Lesson”. Value Points People always feel there is plenty of time to learn—so also in Alsace—now no time— parents not keen—preferred children , work in farms, mill—Franz looked opportunity to escape school—never serious—receive orders from Berlin—people realize importance of their language—attend the last lesson by M. Hamel. QUESTIONS FOR PRACTICE Short Answer Questions. 1. Why was Franz unwilling to go to school? 2. Why didn’t M. Hamel punish Franz, even though he was late? 3. Mention the three changes that Franz noticed in the school? 4. What announcement did M. Hamel make and what was its impact? 5. What do you think was written on the bulletin board? 6. Why did M. Hamel say about knowing one’s language is a key to prison? 7. Whom did Mr. Hamel blame for not learning the French? 8. What changes have taken place in the school in the last forty years? 9. What did he mean by “Viva La France”? 10. Do you think that the story touches upon the brutalities of war? Explain 11.How does Hamel arouse patriotism in the people off Alsace? 12. What does Franz mean when he asks: “ Will they make them sing in German, even the pigeons”
LONG ANSWER QUESTIONS 125 -150 words. 1. Write a note on the character of M. Hamel as a teacher? 2. Do you think the story touches upon the brutalities of war? Comment. 3. What thunderbolt did the narrator receive on reaching the school? How was it affect him ? 4. At the end of the last lesson M. Hamel wrote, ‘Viva La France’ on the board in bold letters. Why do you think he wrote that and how did he expect the people of Alsace – Lorraine to keep their identity intact? 5.What were Franz’ feelings about M Hamel and his French lessons? How did they undergo a complete change? Value Based Question: Answer the following in about 100 words. 5 M Hamel ‘The Last Lesson’ says to the people of Alsace about the necessity of their mother tongue- French: “ …. We must guard it among us and never forget it because when a people are enslaved, as long as they hold fast to their language it is as if they had the key to their prison”. ‘Mother tongue is the language of one’s thoughts and ideas. Rejecting one’s mother tongue is denying one’s own culture and identity.’ Do you think so? Write your reflections on the above statement in the form of an article to be published in your school magazine , encouraging your friends to the need for learning and protecting their mother tongue. 2.LOST SPRING:STORIES OF STOLEN CHILDHOOD By Anees Jung Gist of the lesson: The author examines and analyses the impoverished conditions and traditions that condemn children to a life of exploitation these children are denied an education and forced into hardships early in their lives. The writer encounters Saheb - a rag picker whose parents have left behind the life of poverty in Dhaka to earn a living in Delhi. His family like many other families of rag pickers lives in Seemapuri. They do not have other identification other than a ration card. The children do not go to school and they are excited at the prospect of finding a coin or even a ten rupee note for rummaging in the garbage. It is the only way of earning the life they live in impoverished conditions but are resigned to their fate. The writer is pained to see Saheb, a rag picker whose name means the ruler of earth, lose the spark of childhood and roams barefooted with his friends. From morning to noon the author encounters him in a tea stall and is paid Rs. 800 He sadly realizes that he is no longer his own master and this loss of identity weighs heavily on his tender shoulders. The author then tells about another victim, Mukesh who wants to be a motor mechanic. 81
Hailing from Firozabad, the centre of India’s bangle making and glass blowing industry, he has always worked in the glass making industry. His family like the others there do not know that it is illegal for children to work in such close proximity to furnaces, in such high temperatures. They are exposed to various health hazards like losing their eyesight as they work in abysmal conditions, in dark and dingy cells. Mukesh’s father is blind as were his father and grandfather before him. They lead a hand to mouth existence as they are caught in the vicious web of the money lenders, middlemen, police and the traditions So burdened are the bangle makers of Firozabad that they have lost their ability to dream unlike Mukesh who dreams of driving a car. SOLVED QUESTIONS SHORT ANSWER QUESTIONS 1. What does Saheb do for living? Why? Saheb is a rag picker. His family has left the life of poverty behind in Dhaka in to pursue their dream of finding a better life. The children like him have no access to Education and are forced into rag picking 2. “Saheb is no longer his own master”, says the writer. What does she mean? The writer means that having accepted the job with the tea-stall, Saheb has lost the independence that he enjoyed as a rag picker, even though he was poor. Although he will now be able to supplement the family income, it will be at the cost of his freedom, which is difficult, binding and unfair for someone so young. 3. Why did people migrate from the village in Dhaka to Delhi ? Better education, job opportunities and living conditions. 4. What trade does the family of Mukesh follow? Why does the writer feel that it will be difficult for Mukesh to break away from this tradition? Engaged in bangle making-difficult to break away from this trade. He belongs to the caste of bangle makers His family is caught in the web of sahukars, the middlemen, policemen, politicians and bureaucrats, from which there is no escape. 5. What does garbage symbolize for the adults and children? Adults –means of earning a livelihood. Children –wrapped in wonder, magical LONG ANSWER QUESTION 1. ‘Lost Spring’, is a sad commentary on the political system of our country that condemns thousands of people to a life of abject poverty. Comment. Saheb, optimistic and enthusiastic—prospect of finding gold in garbage—likes going to school but no opportunity—freedom and joy of childhood to burdens of job at tea-stall. 82
Mukesh, born at Firozabad (bangle maker)—works under inhuman condition—dark room, hot furnaces—caught in web of poverty—vicious circle of sahukars, policemen, politicians, bureaucrats and moneylenders—resigned to fate—unaware of child labour act—stifled initiation and hope—lose eyesight before becoming adults. SHORT ANSWER QUESTIONS FOR PRACTICE
a. What does the title of the story ‘Lost Spring ’ imply? b. Where has Saheb come from and why? c. How is Saheb’s name full of irony ? d.“Promises made to poor children are never kept. “Explain with examples from the lesson. e. Mention the hazards of working in the bangle industry. f. Do you think Mukesh will realize his dream of becoming a car mechanic? g. ‘His dreams loom like a mirage’. Whose dreams are being referred to and why are they compared to a mirage? h. ‘Together they have imposed the baggage on the child that he cannot put down.’ Who do ‘they’ refer to? What is the ‘baggage’ and why can the child not get rid of it?i. How is Mukesh’s attitude to his situation different from that of his family? j. Why does the author describe children of slums as partners in survival? k. How has being born in the caste of bangle makers become both a destiny and a curse? LONG ANSWER QUESTIONS 1. Like all children of his age, Saheb also had many hopes and dreams. Do you think children like Saheb are able to fulfill their dreams? 2. Politicians exploit all people and situations to their own benefit. Comment, keeping in views the situation of refugees in Seemapuri. 3. Saheb wants to blossom and bloom but is nipped in the bud. Elaborate. 4. ‘Saheb and Mukesh are brothers in penury and suffering.’ Discuss. 6. Value Based Question: Answer the following in about 100 words. 5 Mukesh says “ I will be a motor mechanic. I will learn to drive a car.” Not only setting a goal, but having a clear idea about the means to reach the goal and pursuing it with strong determination and commitment are essential to achieve success. Based on this realization , write an email to your younger brother , a boarding school student, making him aware of the need for setting realistic goal and planning ways to reach it with strong determination and commitment.
2. DEEP WATER BY WILLIAM DOUGLAS Theme: In this essay William O. Douglas talks about his fear of water and how he finally overcomes it by his courage, determination, handwork, strong will power, perseverance and the desire to learn. If these are practiced we can definitely achieve success in all our endeavors. Gist of the lesson: William O. Douglas had a desire to learn swimming since childhood. At the age of three or four, he was knocked down and buried by a wave at a beach in California. He developed a great aversion to water. At the age of ten or eleven he decided to learn to swim with water wings at the Y.M.C.A pool since it was safe at the shallow end. A misadventure:- while sitting alone and waiting for others to come at the Y.M.C.A pool, a big boy came and threw Douglas into deep end of the pool. Douglas swallowed water and went straight down to the bottom of the pool. While going down he planned to make a big jump upwards but came up slowly. Stark terror seized him. Tried to shout but could not…… As he went down the pool second time, he tried to jump upwards but it was a waste of energy. Terror held him deeper and deeper. During the third trial he sucked water instead of air. Light was going out and there was no more panic. So he ceased all efforts and he became unconscious. He crossed to oblivion. When revived he found himself vomiting beside the pool. He was in grip of fear of water and it deprived him of the joys of canoeing, boating swimming and fishing. Hired an instructor to learn swimming. The instructor taught him swimming piece by piece. He went to different lakes to swim and found tiny vestiges of fear still gripped him. He challenged the fear and swam. Swimming up and down the Warm Lake he finally overcame his fear of water. He realized that in death there is peace and there is terror only in fear of death. Will to live is stronger than fear of death. SOLVED QUESTIONS: Short Answer Questions: 1. Why was the YMCA pool considered safer when compared to the Yakima River? Yakima River was very deep, treacherous and there were many cases of drowning but the YMCA pool only two or three feet deep at the shallow end: and while it was nine 84
feet at the deep end. So YMCA pool was considered safer when compared to the Yakima River. 3. When did his aversion to water begin? His aversion to water began when he was 3 -4 years old when his father took him to California beach. There the waves knocked him down swept over him. 4. What was the misadventure that happened one day? William Douglas had just learnt swimming. One day, an eighteen year old big bruiser picked him up and tossed him into the nine feet deep end of the YMCA pool. He hit the water surface in a sitting position. He swallowed water and went at once to the bottom. He nearly died in this misadventure. 5. What strategy did he remember as he went down the water? To hit the bottom and spring/jump upwards, bob to the surface –like a cork and come out. 6. What effect did the drowning in the YMCA pool have on the Douglas? -weak and trembling - haunting fear - deprived of the joy of canoeing, boating and swimming. 7. What method did he adopt to overcome terror? - Rigorous training (breathing moving of legs ,etc ) - went to lake Wentworth and swam for two miles. LONG ANSWER QUESTIONS 1. How did the misadventure in YMCA pool affect Douglas? How did he overcome it? -was ten or eleven decided-learn-swim -an older boy pushed –almost drowned -haunting fear gripped him -could not enjoy any water sports -finally decided to hire an instructor -seven months –instructor –made a swimmer -released the instructor vestiges remained -swam in Lake Wentworth -challenged the terror -swam across Warm lake -shouted with joy-conquered the fear of water -there is terror only in the fear of death and peace in death. - the will to live became stronger.
1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6.
QUESTIONS FOR PRACTICE Short Answer Questions: Why did mother warn Douglas against River Yakima? What impact did the incident at California beach have on him? What made him decide that the instructor’s role in teaching him swimming was over? Why did Douglas go to Lake Wentworth in New Hampshire? How did he make his terror flee? What larger meaning did the experience have on him? How did he interpret Roosevelt’s saying? 85
Long Answer Questions 1. What is the ‘misadventure’ that William Douglas speaks about? What were the series of emotions fears experienced when he was thrown into the pool? What plans did he make to come to the surface? 2. How did the instructor build a swimmer out of Douglas? 3. Why does Douglas as an adult recount a childhood experience of terror and his conquering of it? What larger meaning does he draw from his experience? 4. Do you think the title Deep Water is appropriate to the story? Why/why not? 5. Value Based Question: Answer the following in about 100 words. 5 William Douglas writes about his frightening experience in the YMCA pool:… With that he picked me up and tossed me into the deep end, I landed in a sitting position, swallowed water…………. I was frightened.” Do you appreciate the behavior of the big, bully boy? Don’t you think that bullying and ragging of students by students( as is seen in news several times ) are barbarianism and have great damaging effect on the victim as well as to the society? Write down your thoughts about this in the form of a speech to be delivered in a meeting of the senior students of your school. INDIGO by Louis Fischer Gist of the lesson: Raj Kumar Shukla- A poor sharecropper from Champaran wishing to meet Gandhiji. Raj Kumar Shukla – illiterate but resolute, hence followed Gandhiji to Lucknow, Cawnpore, Ahmedabad, Calcutta, Patna, Muzzafarpur and then Camparan. Servants at Rajendra Prasad’s residence thought Gandhiji to be an untouchable. Gandhiji considered as an untouchable because of simple living style and wearing, due to the company of Raj Kumar Shukla. Decided to go to Muzzafarpur first to get detailed information about Champaran sharecropper. Sent telegram to J B Kriplani & stayed in Prof Malkani’s home –a government servant. Indians afraid of showing sympathy to the supporters of home rule. The news of Gandhiji’s arrival spread –sharecroppers gathered in large number to meet their champion. Gandhiji chided the Muzzafarpur lawyer for taking high fee. Champaran district was divided into estate owned by English people, Indians only tenant farmers. Landlords compelled tenants to plant 15% of their land with indigo and surrender their entire harvest as rent.
In the meantime Germany had developed synthetic indigo –British landlords freed the Indian farmers from the 15% arrangement but asked them to pay compensation. Many signed, some resisted engaged lawyers, landlords hired thugs. Gandhiji reached Champaran –visited the secretary of the British landlord association to get the facts but denied as he was an outsider. Gandhiji went to the British Official Commissioner who asked him to leave Tirhut , Gandhiji disobeyed, went to Motihari the capital of Champaran where a vast multitude greeted him, continued his investigations. Visited maltreated villagers, stopped by the police superintendent but disobeyed the order. Motihari black with peasants spontaneous demonstrations, Gandhiji released without bail Civil Disobedience triumphed. Gandhiji agreed to 25% refund by the landowners, it symbolised the surrender of the prestige. Gandhiji worked hard towards social economic reforms, elevated their distress aided by his wife, Mahadev Desai, Narhari Parikh. Gandhiji taught a lesson of self reliance by not seeking help of an English man Mr. Andrews.
SOLVED QUESTIONS Short Answer Questions: 1.. What strategy did Gandhiji follow in removing the problems of sharecroppers? Gandhiji discussed the problems with lawyers. He disregarded British order of eviction. He insisted peasants to remove their fear. 2. Why did Gandhiji feel that it was useless for the peasants to go to law courts? The peasants are crushed and fear stricken. The lawyers charged high fee. 3. Why did the British landlords free the sharecropper from growing Indigo? What did they want instead? The British came to know that synthetic indigo was developed in Germany and the 15% of land was released and in return, the peasants were asked to pay compensation for release from the agreement. 4. Why did Gandhiji agree for the 25% refund by the British landlords? Gandhiji agreed for 25% refund because the amount was not important but the landlord’s prestige was surrendered. 5.What was the important lesson taught by Gandhiji to his disciples ? Gandhiji taught rules of personal hygiene and cleanliness. He also taught the -Champarans to win freedom independently without any support of British.
Long answer question: 1. Why did Gandiji consider freedom from fear more important than legal justice for the poor peasants of Champaran? Value Points :British ruthless exploitation—farmers fight through lawyers—battles were inconclusive—terror-stricken—Gandhiji’s declaration—no need of law court –overcome terror—be bold and courageous. SHORT ANSWER QUESTIONS FOR PRACTICE 1. What made Gandhiji urge the departure of the British? 2. How was Gandhiji received in Mothihari? 3. What made Mahatma Gandhi declare ‘the battle of Champaran is won’? 4. How did the Champaran episode change the plight of the peasants? 5. Why did Gandhi agree to a settlement of 25% refund to the farmers? 6. How do we know that ordinary people too contributed to the freedom movement? 7.What argument did Gandhiji give for not complying with the official orders to quit Champaran? 8. How were the Britishers shown that their dreaded and unquestioned authority could be challenged by the Indians? LONG ANSWER QUESTIONS 1. Why did Gandhiji’s casual visit to Champaran get extended to over a year? 2. How did civil disobedience triumph? 3. What idea do you form about the Britishers from the chapter “Indigo”? 4. How did the peasants learn courage? 5. Are Ganhiji’s socio, economic and political ideals relevant today? Discuss with reference to the Champaran episode.
6. Value Based Question: Answer the following in about 100 words. 5 ‘Champaran episode’ was a turning point not only in Gandhiji’s life, but also in the history of Indian freedom struggle. Don’t you agree that Gandhiji’s practically proven ideals of truth, non violence, and empathy for the deprived are still relevant? Write your ideas on “Relevance of Gandhian ideals today” in the form of an article. 88
5.The Rat Trap by Selma Lagerlof Gist of the lesson: The peddler was a vagabond who sold rattraps with a little thievery on the side to make both ends meet. Had no worldly possession to call his own, not even a name. It amused him to think of the world as a rattrap and all the material possessions as bait as the world, he felt was never kind to him. Moreover, he prided himself in the fact that he was out of it. Takes shelter at a crofter’s cottage. The crofter welcomed him, gave him diner, shared his pipe, played mjolis with him also confided in him about his income and showed him where he put it. Next morning, the Peddler steals the money and takes the back roads to keep away from people and gets lost in the jungle at night. While he wanders in the forest he realizes that he has also got caught in the rattrap and that the money was the bait. Finally reaches Ramsjo ironworks, where he takes shelter for the night. The blacksmith and his assistant ignore him but the master mistakes him to be an old acquaintance and invites him home. Though the Peddler does not correct the ironmaster, hoping to get some money out of him, he declines his invitation. The ironmaster then sends his daughter who persuades him to go home with her. She notices his uncouth appearance and thinks that either he has stolen something or he has escaped from jail. The Peddler is scrubbed, bathed, given a haircut, a shave and a suit of old clothes of the ironmaster. In the morning light, the iron master realizes he is mistaken and that he is not the Captain. He wants to call the Sheriff. The peddler is agitated and breaks out that the world is rattrap and he too is sure to be caught in it. The ironmaster is amused but orders him out. The compassionate Edla convinces her father that he should spend the Christmas day with him. The Peddler spends the whole of Christmas Eve eating and sleeping. The next day at church, Edla and her father come to know that the Peddler is a thief who stole thirty kroners from the poor crofter. -Back home, they found a letter addressed to Edla, signed as Captain Von Stahl and a rattrap as a gift from the crofter. In the rattrap were the three ten kroner notes of the crofter.
SOLVED SHORT ANSWER QUESTIONS 1. Why did the Peddler choose to go through the forest? 2. After stealing the thirty kroners from the crofter, the Peddler knew that he would be caught and put in prison if he continued to walk by the man road. So he chose the back roads that went through the forest. 3. Why did not the Peddler reveal his true identity when the ironmaster mistakes him to be the Captain? The Peddler thought that the ironmaster might take pity on him give him some money if he thought he was an old acquaintance. So he keeps quiet and allows the iron master to presume he was the captain. 4. Why did it please the tramp to compare the world to a rattrap? The world was not very kind to the tramp and so it gave him great pleasure to think of it as a rattrap. 5. Why did the tramp sign the letter as Captain Von Stahle? The tramp, though illiterate and a thief, found himself raised to a captain through Edla’s kindness and compassion. He got a chance to redeem himself and hence he signs the letter as Captain Von Stahle. LONG ANSWER QUESTIONS 1. Both the Crofter and Edla Willmanson were kind and hospitable to the Tramp. But he repays crofters kindness by stealing his money while Edla is able to transform him to a better human being. Why? Value Points: Crofter very hospitable. Welcomes him with a smile - gives him supper and shares his tobacco. Tells him about income-shows him the money - very trusting and friendly. Stealing a way of life for the tramp-no twinge of conscience while stealing-But later he realizes that he who prided himself in not being caught in the rattrap was caught in it by stealing – feels depressed. Edla’s kindness and hospitality awakens his conscience-Realises that there is a way out of the trap- Returns the money through Edla- His redemption –gift to Edla.
QUESTIONS FOR PRACTICE: 1. “The world was a rattrap and the peddler himself became a victim of it”. Elucidate. 2. The rattrap exemplifies the truth that essential goodness of human can be awakened through understanding and love. Discuss 3. The story focuses on human loneliness and the need to bond with others. Explain. 4. Why was the crofter so talkative and friendly with peddler? 5. Why did the rattrap seller develop negative view of the world? 6. Why did the peddler decline the iron master’s invitation? 7. Edla is a better judge than her father. Do you think so? Why/why not? 8. Why did the peddler defend himself against not having revealed his true identity? LONG ANSWER QUESTION: PRACTICE 1. ‘The essential virtue of human heart can be aroused through compassion and empathy.’ How far has the meaning of this statement been exemplified in the story ‘The Rattrap’ 2. Value Based Question: Answer the following in about 100 words. 5 It has been understood from the story ‘The Rattrap’ that the compassion, empathy and unconditional love and trust of Edla Wilmanson only could win the heart of the rattrap seller to reclaim him to be an honest and upright individual at last. ‘An Eye for an Eye will make the whole world blind.’—It is through fellow-feeling , love , compassion and trust in others that we can change the society . Write your argument for the statement to participate in a debate competition.
THE INTERVIEW by Christopher Sylvester GIST OF THE LESSON: PART I
Interview has become a commonplace of journalism. Opinions on the functions, methods and merits of Interview vary considerably. Some claim it to be the highest form, a source of truth and in its practice an art. Some despise the interview as an unwarranted intrusion into lives, which diminishes their personality. o V.S. Naipaul feels that ‘some people are wounded by interviews and lose a part of them selves’. o Lewis Carroll never consented to be interviewed for he believed it to be ‘a just horror of the interviewer’. o Rudyard Kipling considered it ‘immoral, a crime, an assault that merits punishment’. o H.G. Wells referred interviewing to be an ‘ordeal’. 91
o Saul Bellow describes it ‘like thumbprints on his windpipe’. Despite the drawbacks interview is a supremely serviceable medium of communication. Interviews are the most vivid impression of our contemporaries and the interviewer holds a position of unprecedented power and influence.
An extract from an interview of Umberto Eco interviewed by Mukund Padmanabhan. Umberto Eco was a professor with a formidable reputation as a scholar for his ideas on Semiotics, literary interpretation and medieval aesthetics before he turned into writing literary fiction. He attained intellectual superstardom with his publication “The Name of the Rose”. In the interview Eco shares his idea of empty spaces in our lives just as they exist in an atom, which he calls Interstices. He says that he makes use of these empty spaces to work. Eco’s essays were scholarly and narrative. He likes to be identified more as a university professor who writes novels. Eco’s ‘The Name of the Rose”, a serious novel, which delves into metaphysics, theology and medieval history, enjoyed a mass audience. It dealt with medieval past. He feels that the novel wouldn’t have been so well received had it been written ten years earlier or later. SOLVED SHORT ANSWER QUESTIONS a. Why do most celebrity writers despise being interviewed? Most celebrity writers despise being interviewed as they consider it as an undesirable intrusion into their personal lives. Some viewed it an immoral and offensive activity. Some others feel it would ‘diminish’ them. b.How is Umberto Eco’s non-fictional writing style different from academic writing style? Umberto Eco’s non-fictional writing style has a certain playful, narrative and personal quality about it whereas his academic writing is depersonalized and often dry and boring. LONG ANSWER QUESTION a. “Interviews an unwarranted intrusion in the lives of others”. Elucidate with reference to The Interview.
Value points:Interviews are common feature in Journalism – Most celebrities consider them as an unnecessary intrusion in their lives – “a horror of the interview”, “ an ordeal”, “thumbprints on windpipe”- interview is a supremely serviceable medium of communication- the most vivid impression of our contemporaries -the interviewer holds a position of unprecedented power and influence. SHORT ANSWER QUESTIONS FOR PRACTICE 1.“Best interviews are considered as an art.” Mention four qualities of such an art. 2. Saul Bellow consented to be interviewed many a times. Did he like being interviewed? Substantiate. 3.Why does Brian say that interviewer holds a strong position of power and influence? 4. Why was ‘Name of the Rose’, a success? 5.What are the major two remarkable qualities of Umberto Eco’s scholarly writings? LONG ANSWER QUESTIONS 1. The interview conducted by Mukund Padmanabhan reveals what a good interview should be like. Do you agree? Give reasons. 2. Value Based Question: Answer the following in about 100 words. 5
Rudyard Kipling says that ‘interview’ is ‘an offence against a person, an assault…. It is cowardly and vile.’ Everyone likes to have his/her own individual space and freedom. It is seen quite often in your class that some of your fellow students are made victims of verbal assault, rumours and insults at the hands of your own friends. Write a note of advice ‘How to conduct Yourself’ to such bullying friends of yours teaching them about the need to respect others’ self-esteem, dignity, individuality and freedom.. GOING PLACES by A.R.BARTON GIST OF THE LESSON
The lesson explores the theme of adolescent fantasies and hero worship. Sophie and Jansie are both in the last year of high school and both knew that they were destined to work in the biscuit factory as they belong to a working class family. Yet, Sophie, always dreams of big and beautiful things, glamour and glory.
Her ambitions are not rooted in reality i.e., have no relation with the harsh realities of life. In contrast is Jansie, Sophie’s friend, a realistic and practical girl. Sophie lives in male-dominated family where her mother was only a shadow. The men were football fans and the conversations around the dinner table were about Danny Casey, their Hero. Sophie wants some attention from her father and brother and telling them that she met Casey, was her way of drawing their attention towards her. But she carries her fantasies too far when she starts to live them.
SOLVED SHORT ANSWER QUESTIONS 1.What does Sophie dream of doing after she passes out of school? Why do you call it a dream, and not a plan? Sophie dreams of big and beautiful things, glamour and glory. She is not practical in her thinking and has no concrete plans to make her dreams real. 1. Do you think Sophie and Jansie are pole apart in their attitude to life? Sophie was a dreamer unable to come in terms with the fact that she is year marked for the biscuit factory after her high school. But the tragedy was that she carries her fantasies too far when she started living in them, whereas her friend Jansie is practical and down-to-earth. She tries her level best to bring her friend down to the realities. 2. Sophie is a typical adolescent hero-worshipper who carries her fantasizing too far .Do you agree?. Yes, Sophie is a typical adolescent who worships Danny Casey, the football star. She fantasizes about meeting him and taking his autograph which is quite normal for an adolescent. But she crosses the border of normalcy when she tell her family that she actually met him and that he wants to take her on a date. And then she actually goes to the place and literally waits for him to appear which is abnormal. LONG ANSWER QUESTION 1. Sophie has no touch with reality; Janise’s feet are, however, firmly planted on the ground. Discuss.
Value Points: Both school going girls and intimate friends – both belong to lower middle class family – but different from each other. Different approach to life - one a romantic, habitual dreamer and an escapist. Sophie dreams of things beyond her reach – Jansie has a practical approach to life - discourages her friend’s wild dreams – gossipy. QUESTIONS FOR PRACTICE SHORT ANSWER QUESTIONS 1. “Sophie’s dreams and disappointments are all in her mind “.justify this statement. 2. Do you think that Sophie met Danny Casey?Give reasons. 3. What was Sophie’s father’s reaction when Geoff told him about Sophie meeting Casey? 4. When did Sophie actually see Danny Casey? 5. Why was Sophie jealous of Geoff’s silence? 6. 6. What is the adolescent issues discussed in the lesson ‘Going places’? LONG ANSWER QUESTIONS 1. Why did Sophie like her brother Geoff more than any other person? What did he symbolize for her? 2. Give a brief character sketch of Sophie’s father. What kind of a relationship did they share? 3. The story “Going Places” draws a beautiful contrast between ‘fact’ and ‘fiction’. Comment. 4. Do you think that Sophie is a representative of unguided adolescent? Discuss. 5. Value Based Question: Answer the following in about 100 words. 5
Sophie ,in the story, ‘Going Places’ is a victim of adolescent fantasizing and hero worship and does not have any touch realistic and practical outlook. But her friend Jansie is very opposite to her and tries hard to bring her to the reality. One of your friends studying in the city is also such a victim of adolescent fantasizing and hero worship. Write a letter to her making her realise the wrong path she is treading and guiding her through the right way, being true friend..
SUPPLEMENTARY READER :VISTAS
THE TIGER KING BY KALKI Gist of the lesson:
The Maharaja Sir Jilani Jung Jung Bhadur was called “Tiger King”. When he was just 10 days old he asked intelligent questions to the astrologers and was told that he would be killed by a tiger. He uttered “Let tigers beware!” No other miracle took place, the child grew like any other Royal child drinking white cow’s milk, taught by an English tutor, looked after by an English nanny and watched English films. When he was 20, he was crowned as king. It was then the prediction of his death by the tiger reached the Maharaja’s ear and he in turn to safe guard himself killed a tiger and being thrilled he told the astrologer who replied that he can kill 99 tigers but should be careful with the 100th. From then on he started killing tiger and none was allowed to hunt tigers. A highranking British officer visited the state that was fond of hunting tiger and his wish was declined. The officer requested for getting a photograph with a tiger killed by Maharaja and this request was rejected. So to please the officer’s wife he sent 50 diamond rings expecting that she would take 1 or 2 instead she kept all the rings costing 3 lakh rupees and sent ‘thanks’ to the Maharaja. But his state was secured. In 10 years he killed 70 tiger and didn’t find any in Pratibandapuram so he decided to marry a girl from royal state which had more tigers to complete his target. Whenever he visited his in-laws he killed 5-6 tigers. So he killed 99 tigers and was feverishly anxious to kill the 100th but couldn’t find. News about the presence of a tiger near a village proved disappointing. Now the Dewan was warned of his danger so he visited ‘People’s Park in Madras’ and brought an old tiger and placed it in the forest and informed the Maharaja. The Maharaja took great care and shot the tiger and left the place with great triumph. The bullet did not hit the tiger but out of fear the tiger had collapsed. Now the staff killed the tiger and brought it in grand procession. It was the 3rd birthday of the Maharaja’s son and he wanted to buy a present from the toyshop. He bought a wooden tiger which was poorly carved.
While the Maharaja was playing with the prince a tiny sliver of the wooden tiger pierced his right hand which later on caused his death. Thus the hundredth tiger takes his final revenge upon the “Tiger King”.
Question and Answer: 1. What was the miracle that took place in the royal palace? When the Maharaja was a 10 day old infant spoke and asked intelligent questions about his death. After knowing that he would be killed by a tiger he uttered saying “Let tigers beware.” 2. How was the Tiger King brought up? As a child the Tiger King was brought up by an English nanny and tutored in English by an Englishman. He was given the milk of an English cow. Like many other Indian crown princes he watched only English movies. 3. What did the State astrologer say he would do ‘if the hundredth tiger were also killed’? The State astrologer was so sure of his prediction that he announced that he would cut off his ceremonial tuft, crop his hair short and become an insurance agent in case the king was able to kill the 100th tiger, too. He was sure that the Maharaja’s death would be caused by the 100th tiger. 4. What did the high-ranking British officer wish to do? Was his wish fulfilled? The high-ranking British officer wanted to kill a tiger. When he was denied the permission for hunting, he sent a word to the king that he would be happy if he was allowed to get photographed with the dead body of a tiger killed by the king. However, his wish remained unfulfilled. 5. How did the Maharaja manage to save his throne? The Maharaja had annoyed the visiting senior British officer over the issue of tiger-hunting and ‘stood in danger of losing his kingdom itself’. So, the Maharaja and the Dewan decided to placate and pacify the officer through bribe by sending gifts of expensive diamond rings to the ‘duraisani”, the wife of the British officer. Thus he managed to save his throne. 6. How did the ‘duraisani’ behave on receiving the gifts? Some fifty samples of expensive diamond rings were sent to the duraisani and it was expected that she would select on or two and return the rest. But the lady proved to be greedy as she retained all of them and merely sent a letter of thanks. 6. Why did the Maharaja’s tiger killing mission come to a sudden still?
Within ten years Maharaja’s tiger hunting had resulted in the killing of seventy tigers. However his tiger killing mission came to a sudden standstill because the tiger population became extinct in the forest of Pratibandapuram. 8. Why did the Maharaja suddenly decide to marry? Whom did he wish to marry? The Maharaja suddenly decided to marry because firstly, he was of marriageable age and secondly, he wanted to kill thirty more tigers in his father-in-law’s state in order to complete the tally of hundred tigers .For this reason he wished to marry a girl in the royal family of a state with a large tiger population. 9. Why did Maharaja order the dewan to double the tax? The Maharaja called the dewan and ordered him to immediately double the tax of the villagers who had informed him of a tiger in the forest because despite his best efforts he was unable to locate the beast. This infuriated the Maharaja. 10. What did the Maharaja buy as a birthday gift for his son? The Maharaja wished to give his son a very special gift on his birthday and he bought a wooden toy tiger as a perfect birthday gift for his son. 11. How did the king’s arm become seriously infected? The king’s arm had got infected from a prick caused by one of the slivers on the wooden tiger. In one day, the infection got flared in the Maharaja’s right hand and in four days it developed into a suppurating sore which spread all over the arm. Though he was operated yet he died. Unsolved Question 1. How did the Maharaja kill the hundredth tiger? 2. The title of the Maharaja reflected grandeur but his death was an anticlimax. Justify. 3. How did the Tiger King meet his end? What is ironical about his death? 4. What idea do you form about the ruling Indian class during the pre-partition days from the king’s encounter with shopkeeper? 5. What idea do you form about the married life of the king? 6. Why did the tiger king decided to marry? How do you conclude his attitude towards marriage? Long answer type question 1. How did the Tiger King meet his end? What is ironical about his death? The wooden toy tiger the king had got as a birthday present for his son had been carved by an unskilled carpenter. It had a rough surface with tiny slivers of wood standing up like quills all over it. One of those slivers pierced the Maharaja’s right hand and although the king pulled it, his arm got infected. In four days, it developed into a suppurating sore and spread all over the arm. The king died while being operated upon. 98
The king’s death is ironical but not surprising for the reader who is, in fact, looking forward to it. Having ‘killed’ the 100th tiger, the king is jubilant for he has fulfilled his vow and disproved the prediction of the royal astrologer. He is now at ease for he thinks he cannot die of a tiger’s attack. No wonder, he orders the ‘dead’ tiger to be taken in a procession through the town and gets a tomb erected over it. All this while he does not know that the 100th victim was not killed by him but by other hunters. That is indeed quite ironical. Death is lurking around him and the king is unaware of it. Again, it is ironical that a king who has killed 100 tigers and is bold and fearless dies of a mere ‘sliver’ on the body of a wooden tiger. Thus, ironically death does come to him from a tiger. 2.‘The story is a satire on the conceit of those in power’ Elucidate. THE ENEMY BY PEARL S BUCK GIST OF THE LESSON: Dr. Sadao, a Japanese surgeon finds a wounded American soldier on the beach near his house. He is unable to throw him back though he was his enemy as he was a doctor and his first duty was to save a life. Hana, his wife, though initially reluctant because it was dangerous for all including the children to keep the enemy in the house, joins her husband in operating and nursing the enemy soldier back to health, even though the servants desert the house. Hana assists Dr. Sadao in operating the soldier in spite of her physical discomfort and hesitation. Though it was war time and all hands were needed at the front, the General did not send Sadao with the troops as he is an expert surgeon and the General needed him. Sadao tells him about the enemy soldier but he does not take any action as he is self-absorbed and forgets his promise that he would send his private assassins to kill the enemy and remove his body. Taking advantage of the general’s self-absorption Sadao decides to save the soldiers life. After the soldier is out of danger Dr. Sadao helps him to escape from his house to safety. SOLVED SHORT ANSWER QUESTIONS: 1 Why did the General overlook the matter of the enemy soldier? The General had an attack and according to Dr. Sadao he could not survive the second attack. So if Dr. Sadao was arrested, no other doctor was capable of performing the operation. So for furthering his selfish needs he overlooked the matter and promises to send his assassins. But he was so self-absorbed, he forgot about it.
2. Why was Dr. Sadao not sent with the troops? The General thought that Dr. Sadao is indispensable to his life and can save anyone as he is very skilled. He also does not trust anyone except Dr. Sadao. So he was not sent with troops. 3. How was the plan of the prisoner’s escape executed in the story? The prisoner was successful in his escape only because of the right guidance and help from Dr. Sadao. He provided him his boat, gave his food, made him wear Japanese cloths and also helped him in comfortable sail to a nearby island. 4. Why did the servants leave Dr. Sadao’s house? They were not in favour of keeping the American prisoner hidden in the house. They also did not want Dr. Sadao to save his life as he was the enemy. Also, if the police come to know of it, all their lives would be in danger. So they left the house. 5. Who was the white man whom Dr. Sadao and Hana found? The white man was an American soldier as evident from his clothes. They guess that he was a prisoner of war from his cap that said ‘Navy Seals’ 6. ‘‘But Sadao searching the spot of black in the twilight sea that night, had his reward’’. What was the reward? The “reward” was the escape of the enemy. Dr. Sadao searched the spot of black in the twilight sea that night to see if the man was still there but there was no light. Obviously the man had gone. The escape of the prisoner was his reward. 7 What message does “The Enemy” give? This is a great lesson in humanism. Dr. Sadao by nursing his country’s enemy proves true to his professional ethics. 8.Why do you think Hana believes that the prisoner of war is a manace ‘living or dead’? 9.What is the observation of the Ameraican professor about a doctor’s ability? 10.What was the help that the General offered to Sadao to get rid of the prisoner? 11. Why was Sadao not able to talk to the General about the assassins for quite some time? 12.Why did Sadao feel that General was in the palm of his hand? LONG ANSWER QUESTIONS 1. How did Dr. Sadao rise above narrow prejudices of race & country to human being in need? 100
Value Points Dr. Sadao- a renowned Japanese surgeon- believed in professional loyalty & human kindness- saw an American wounded soldier in a terrible condition on beach in front of his house-took him his house with the help of his wife Hana-successfully removed the bullet-nursed him back to his life-thus rose above racialism. As a patriot, reported the prisoner’s presence at his house to the Army General. The general decided to have him killed-he grew vestless to see him & finally decided to help him to escape form his house-gave him boats & instructed him how he could safely escape. 2. Do you think the doctor’s final solution to the problem was the best possible one in the circumstances? Value Points It is the best possible option-general had promised him that he would get the soldier quietly killed through his private assassins-but he forgot to get rid of- Dr. Sadao could do nothing-he wanted to get rid of the wounded soldier-as the servants had left the houseand news could be spread-so he devised his own plan to get the soldier off to the nearby island-managed his boat for the soldier and instructed him. The white soldier took leave of him and followed his instruction and managed to escape safely. Thus all this proves that that was the only way out for Dr. Sadao to the problem.
5. There are moments in life when we have to make hard choice between our role as private individuals and as citizens with a sense of national loyalty. Discuss with reference to the Enemy. Value Points Dr. Sadao encounters with the dilemma-to live as private individual whose and moral ethical responsibility is to save the soldier. So as a doctor and as an individual his first job is to save the man-takes ethical responsibility, he risks his life, fame and social status- takes him to his house and makes efforts to save him. But his other side-sense of patriotism and nationalism also involves a report to police, takes the general in confidence, and plans to get the enemy soldier killed but later on helps the soldier in escaping. Thus Dr. Sadao’s personality is displayed as patriotic citizen. 4. Do you justify the hard choice that Dr. Sadao made between his his national loyalty and personal/professional morality? Why?
SHOULD WIZARD HIT MOMMY? By JOHN UPDIKE Gist of the Lesson
The chapter captures a very sensitive reaction of a small girl to an important aspect of the story that her father narrates to her. The story reveals the worldview of a little child to a difficult moral question that shows her mental or psychological richness. Jo is a little girl of four years. She is engaged in a story session with her father. Jack, the father used to tell her a story every evening and especially for Saturday naps. Jo feels herself involved with the characters and the happenings. The story always had an animal with a problem. The old owl advises him to visit the wizard who would solve the problem. Skunk’s problem- he smelt bad, visited the wizard who changed it to the smell of roses. Skunk’s mother was unhappy with it and took him back to the wizard. She hit the wizard and asked him to restore the original smell. She wanted her son to keep his identity of a skunk and wanted his friends to accept him for himself. So the wizard changes him back to smell like a skunk. After hearing the story of Roger Skunk Jo was not happy with the ending. She wants her father to change the ending. She wants the wizard to hit the mother back and let Roger be which her father was not ready to do to establish his authority. This raises a difficult moral question whether parents possess the right to impose their will on their children. Her father finds it difficult to answer her question.
SOLVED QUESTIONS SHORT ANSWER QUESTIONS: 1. How did the wizard help Roger Skunk? The wizard was moved by Roger Skunk’s story. On finding his magic wand - chanted some magic words & granted that Roger should smell like roses. 2. How did Roger Skunk’s Mommy react when he went home smelling of roses? Roger Skunk began to smell like roses. Mommy asked about the smell - Roger Skunk replied that the wizard had made him smell like that mother did not like that and asked Roger to come with her. 3. How did the Skunk’s mother get him his old smell back? Mother was furious to learn about the wizard who changed the original smell. She immediately visited the wizard and hit him on his head and asked him to restore the original smell. 4. Who is Jo? How has she changed in the past two years? How did Jo behave in ‘reality phase’? 102
Jo is Jack’s 4 year old daughter. She was no more a patient listener. She did not take things for granted and tried to see things in her own way. 5. How does Jo want the story to end and why? Jo understood Roger Skunk’s need to enjoy the company of his friends; therefore wanted that the wizard should take Roger’s side. QUESTIONS FOR PRACTICE 1. What different queries does the Secretary of the Examinations Board make from the Governor before conducting the examination for Evans and why? 2. Who do you think made a call regarding a correction in the question paper? What did it really want to convey? 3. Who is Carter? What does the Governor want him to go and why? 4. How did the Governor manage to reach Evans in the hotel? 5.Do you think that the father in the story is, more or less, an alter ego of the author, as far as the child is concerned? 6. How do you interpret the expression’ This was a new phase, just this last month, a reality phase’? 7. Why in your opinion, is the smell of roses obnoxious for the mother Skunk? 8. ‘That was a long story.’ What does Clare want to convey through this assertion? LONG ANSWER QUESTIONS 1. Why an adult’s perspective of life is different from that of a child’s as given in the story? Suggested Value points An adult’s perceptive on life is always different - maturity of a person becomes his barometer to judge right & wrong. For him/her everything that occurs has a message. In the story, Jack at no level accepts Jo’s worldview that wizard should hit Mommy. On the other hand - a child’s perceptive is limited to his activities - child’s perceptive completely different - they love ‘action’ more than thought - so does Jo in the story - she would delight in hearing the story of Roger Skunk’s Mommy being hit by the wizard. LONG ANSWER QUESTIONS
1. What is Jack’s way of telling stories? Why is it appealing? 2. What does Jack want to convey through the story of Roger Skunk? 3. How is Jack’s childhood interwoven in the story of the stinky skunk? 4. How does Jack assert his authority as a father over his daughter? 5. What part of the story did Jack himself enjoy the most? Why?
‘ON THE FACE OF IT’ BY SUSAN HILL GIST OF THE LESSON The play depicts beautifully yet grimly the sad world of the physically impaired. It is not the actual pain or inconvenience caused by a physical impairment that trouble a disabled man but the attitude of the people around him. Two physically impaired people, Mr. Lamb with a tin leg and Derry with a burnt face, strike a band of friendship. Derry is described as a young boy shy, withdrawn and defiant. People tell him inspiring stories to console him, no one will ever kiss him except his mother that too on the other side of his face Mentions about a woman telling that only a mother can love such a face. Mr. Lamb revives the almost dead feelings of Derry towards life. He motivates him to think positively about life, changes his mind set about people and things. How a man locked himself as he was scared-a picture fell off the wall and got killed. Everything appears to be the same but is different- Ex. of bees. And weeds The gate of the garden is always open. Derry is inspired and promises to come back. Derry’s mother stops him but he is adamant saying if he does not go now it would be never. When he comes back he sees lamb lying on the ground It is ironical that when he searches a new foothold to live happily, he finds Mr. Lamb dead. In this way the play depicts the heart rendering life of physically disabled people with their loneliness, aloofness and alienation. But at the same time it is almost a true account of the people who don’t let a person live happily. SHORT ANSWER QUESTIONS Q1. Who is Derry? What self-opinion does he hold? Derek, also called Derry was a young boy of 14. He was a quiet, shy and defiant boy. One side of his face was totally burnt by acid. He was a victim of inferiority complex. Q2. How does Lamb try to remove the baseless fears of Derry? Mr. Lamb influences Derry by his optimistic philosophy. He advised him not to give attention on other’s comments, try to be internally pure and strong and eliminate the negativity of life. Q3. What did Derry’s mothers think of Mr. Lamb? OR Why did Derry’s mother stop him, going to Mr. Lamb? Derry’s mother does not hold a good opinion about Mr. Lamb. She has heard many things about the old man, therefore stops Derry to visit Mr. Lamb. Q5. Why does Derry go back to Mr. Lamb in the end? Actually Mr. Lamb has taught Derry, the most important lesson of life. He advises him not to care about the comments made by others. He now no longer cares about his burned face or 104
looks. He is more concerned what he thinks and feels what he wants to hear and see. He knows if does not go back, he will never go back. Therefore he returns back. Q6. Comment on the moral value of the play? The moral of the play is very loud and clear. The physically disabled should focus on the brighter side of life and not to brood over the shortcomings. The society should accept them as they are and expand their social interactions .in this way they can fight out the loneliness, depression and disappointment. Q7. Mr. Lamb says to Derry; ‘it’s all relative, beauty and the beast’, what essentially does he mean by that? Mr. Lamb tells Derry that it all depends upon people’s individual perceptions. A thing is a beauty for one while that beauty may be a beast for others. Extra questions for practice 1. What is the attitude of Mr. Lamb to the small boy who comes to the garden? 2.”I’m not afraid. People are afraid of me,” says Derry. What do people think on seeing his face? How do they react then? 3. Why does Lamb’s argument fail to console Derry? 4. What makes Derry think that the old man is always alone and miserable? What does he tell the old man? 5. What argument does Derry give to convince his mother why he wants to go the old man’s garden? 6. How does Mr. Lamb explain his concept of the world? 7. What does the author want to communicate through the incident of the buzzing/humming of bees? 8. Do you think Mr. Lamb was equally lonely and dejected? Why / Why not? LONG ANSWER QUESTIONS Q1. The actual pain or inconvenience caused by a physical impairment is often much less than the sense of alienation felt by the person with disabilities. What is the kind of behavior that the person expects from others? Value Points: Actual pain or inconvenience caused by physical impairment is often less than the sense of alienation felt by the person with disabilities – Physical disabilities – caused pain once in life time – But after it this physical disability – set chain for other actions – caused mental agony – -called Lamely lamb, mothers were afraid of sending the children because of his tin leg. -Derry -burnt face –everyone pities him-only a mother could love that face -Both Mr. Lamb and Derry have been the victims of verbal atrocities – -Mr. Lamb takes comments lightly – -But Derry does not have the attitude like Mr. Lamb – -Attitude of the people needs to be changed -Do not want sympathy but accept them as they are -Wounds get healed –but bitter comments never forgotten leaves a scar
QUESTIONS FOR PRACTICE 1. What is the theme of the play? How has it been worked out? 2. Compare and contrast the characters of Mr. Lamb and Derry. 3. What is the bond that unites old Mr. Lamb and Derry the young boy? How does the old man inspire the small boy? 4. Comment on the appropriateness of the title. 5. The play is full of psychological revelations about the adolescent psyche. Discuss EVANS TRIES AN O-LEVEL BY OLIN DEXTER GIST OF THE LESSON Evans a kleptomaniac was imprisoned thrice and all the time escaped from the prison. Now he was in the prison for the 4th time and all of a sudden developed curiosity to appear in O-level German Examination which also was an effort to break the prison. The Governor takes utmost care to see that he would not be fooled. Every care was taken to make Evans prepare for the exam. He was tutored by a German tutor for 6 months. The day before the exam the tutor wishes good luck but makes it clear that he had hardly any ‘chance of getting through.’ But Evans gives an ironical twist to the tutor’s observation by saying “I may surprise everybody.” On the day of the exam Jackson and Stephens visited Evans cell and took away everything that may help him injure himself. Evans was insisted to take away the hat but he refused saying that it was lucky charm. Evans cell was bugged so that the Governor could himself listen to each and every conversation in the cell. The invigilator Rev. S. McLeery too was searched and left him to complete the task. Stephen sitting outside the cell every now and then peeped into the cell. The exam went on smoothly. Stephen escorted the invigilator to the main gate and took a look into Evans cell and found the invigilator (actually Evans) wounded, informed the Governor. The latter was to be hospitalized but informed that he was alright and asked them to follow Evans. Thus he escaped the prison. When the invigilator was not found in the hospital they went to the residence of Rev. S. McLeery only to find him ’bound and gagged in his study in Broad Street”. He has been there, since 8.15 a.m. Now everything was clear to the Governor.
Evan escaped the prison the 4th time. But by taking the hint from the question paper the Governor reached the hotel where Evans was and captured him and came to know how he planned his escape and said that his game was over. Evans surrenders himself to the Governor. The Governor tells Evan they would meet soon. The moment they are rid of the Governor, the so called prison officer-a friend of Evansunlocks the handcuffs and asks the driver to move fast and Evans tells him to turn to Newbury. Evans, thus, has the last laugh. SOLVED SHORT ANSWER QUESTIONS 106
1. What kind of a person was Evans? Evans was a ‘Kleptomaniac’ and had broken jail thrice. He was a master planner and was very sociable. He knew how to keep intimate contacts with people. In the words of the Governor, he was a pleasant sort of chap with no record of violence. 2. Do you think Evans’ statement, ‘I may surprise everybody,” has some special significance? Evans seems to be telling his teacher that he may surprise everybody by doing well in the exam, but in reality it is a forewarning that he is going to jolt everybody by his masterminded perfect escape-plan. 3. Who were the two visitors Evans received in the morning of the day of his exam? The two visitors --Mr. Jackson, the senior prison officer of the prison’s D Wing-- man called Stephens, who had been only recently recruited. 4. What made Evans clip his hair short? Evans’ escape prison-- duplicate McLeery (invigilate during the O-level German exam) had short hair. In order to give a practical shape to their plan Evans’ hair had to look like McLeery’s, hence Evans clipped them short. 5. Why did the Governor instruct Jackson to search McLeery? The Governor asked Jackson to search McLeery, the invigilator, just in case he has brought something unwittingly which might prove to be a weapon that Evans could use and try escaping from prison. 6 .Why did Evans drape a blanket round his shoulder? What did Stephens think about it? In between intervals of Stephens’ peeping into the cell, Evans was changing into the Parson’s dress to look like McLeery. So, in order to conceal his effort to keep them in place, Evans draped a blanket round his shoulder. Stephens was misled into believing that Evans was feeling cold. 7. In spite of strict vigilance, how did Evans’ friend manage to give the material for disguise in the cell? Despite all vigilance, Evans’ friend disguised as McLeery, the invigilator, managed to smuggle the disguised material into the cell. He came wearing two parson’s dresses with black fronts and collars. Apart from it he also brought an extra pair of spectacles. All this was passed on to Evans when Stephens’ vigilant eyes were away from the peep-hole. QUESTIONS FOR PRACTICE 1. What different queries does the Secretary of the Examinations Board make from the Governor before conducting the examination for Evans and why? 2. Who do you think made a call regarding a correction in the question paper? What did it really want to convey? 3. Who is Carter? What does the Governor want him to go and why? 4. How did the Governor manage to reach Evans in the hotel? LONG ANSWER QUESTIONS 1. What impression do you form of ‘Evans the Break’? 2. Comment on the ending of the play ‘Evan Tries An O-Level. 107
3. How far do you agree with the observation: “He was just another good-for-a-giggle, gullible governor that was all”? 4. Do you think the title ‘Evans Tries an O-Level’ is appropriate? Give reasons in support of your answer. 5.How did the Governor manage to reach Evans in the hotel? 6. Who do you think is the driver of the van who eventually takes Evans to freedom? LONG ANSWER QUESTION 1. What were the precautions taken for the smooth conduct of the examination? Since Evans had already escaped from the jail on three earlier occasions, there was always a lurking fear that he might make another attempt to escape. Therefore all possible precautions were taken to see that the O-level German examination arranged in the prison did not provide him with any means of escape. The Governor personally monitored all security arrangements and heavily guarded the Recreation Block from where he expected the prisoner to make another break. Evans cell was thoroughly checked by Jackson to ward off the possibility of the presence of an incriminating material which might hamper the smooth conduct of the examination. His nail-scissors, nail-file and razor were taken away; and to keep a strict watch on the activities of the cell during the examination, the Governor got it bugged. A police officer Stephens was posted to keep a constant vigil on his activities. The invigilator, too was frisked to make sure that he carried no objectionable material with him. MEMORIES OF CHILDHOOD by ZITKALA-SA AND BAMA GIST OF THE LESSON
o The first part deals with the account of Simmons, An American Indian, who fought against the prejudices of the society against American Indians. o She describes her experiences on her first day at the Carlisle Indian School. o The customs and rules of the place were strange and new to her. o She was forced to wear clothes that were considered undignified in her culture o At breakfast, she was embarrassed as she did not know the routine of the place. o When she comes to know that they were planning to cut her hair, she protests by hiding under the bed, even though she knew it was futile. In her culture, it was the cowards whose hair was shingled. o She felt like an animal driven by a herder. o PART – II o The second part is an excerpt from the autobiography ‘Karukku’ by Bama – a Tamil Dalit. o She was in her third grade when she becomes aware of the indignities that the lower caste people face. o She happens to see an elderly person from her community abase himself in front of a higher caste person as he was not supposed to touch the food that he was ordered to fetch for the landlord. 108
o Later, her brother explains to her that the incident was not at all funny as she initially thought, but very pathetic. The people from the lower caste were treated as untouchables. o She was deeply saddened and decided to study hard to overcome discrimination. Short Answer Questions with Sample Answers 1. What were the indignities that the new girls were subjected to at Carlisle Indian School? The girls were scrutinized thoroughly and supervised by a grey-haired woman. They were made to wear tight fitting immodest clothes and stiff shoes. During breakfast a systematic and regimental discipline was observed. The girls with long hair had to get them shingled and they had to submit to the authorities who were strong, unfeeling and cruel. 2. On learning that her long hair would be cut the author decided to struggle first. What does this tell us about the author? The author knows that she could never prevail against the authorities, yet she struggles against the injustice. Her mother had told her that only cowards had their hair shingled and she firmly believed that she was not one. To prove her point as well as raise her voice against the indignity, she struggles. 3. Why did Bama take half hour to an hour to cover the distance to her home that would normally take only ten minutes? Bama would dawdle along, watching all the entertaining novelties and oddities in the streets. She would gaze at the shops and the bazaar enjoying the street scenes and so she would take at least an hour to reach home. 4. What was the incident that made Bama laugh as well as feel so provoked and angry? Bama saw an elderly man of her street carrying a packet of „Vadais‟ by the strings and walking gingerly, holding the parcel away from his body. Bama found his manner of carrying the parcel very funny. But her brother explains to her the higher caste people believed that if the lower caste people touched the parcel it would be polluted. That’s why the elder was carrying it in that manner. This provokes and angers Bama. Short Answer Questions for Practice: 1. Zitkala-Sa’s friend Judewin tells her that it is better to submit to authority. What kind of a person do you think Judewin was? 2. Why did Zitkala-Sa start crying in the dining hall? 3. Why does the author feel ‘Spirit tore itself in struggling for its lost freedom, all was useless’? 4. ‘Now I was only one of many little animals driven by a herder!’ Explain. 5. When and how did Bama come to know of the discrimination faced by the marginalized people? 109
6. 6.Why didn’t the author want to her hair to be cut short?
Long Answer Questions: 1. Had Bama not been guided properly by her elder brother regarding untouchability, she would have grown up into a complex-torn woman. Do you agree? Justify. Value points: Annan an understanding and considerate elder brother – guides her properly – explains the social stigma of untouchability – Elder carrying Vadai not comical but pathetic – victim of social prejudice – Bama angry and provoked – Frustration might have lead to open and futile revolt – Timely advice of Annan guides her in right direction – He believe that people of their community should study and outshine others to earn respect of society. Bama follows his timely advice and grows up to be a balanced and well respected individual of the society. Long Answer questions for Practice:
1. Bama’s brother’s right advice at the right time helped her progress in academics thereby throwing away the chain of untouchability of which dalits like her are victims of. Justify with reference to ‘Memories of Childhood’ 2. Both Bama and Zitkala-Sa are victims of discrimination that is practiced in the society. What kind of experience did both of them go through? 3. What are the similarities in the lives of Bama and Zitkal though they belong to different countries? 4. Describe how Zitkala tried in vain to save her hair from being cut. Why did she want to save her hair? 5. Does the twin stories hold any relevance today? Analyse with reference to the incidents in the story and the present society.
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